Since the end of the Cold War, the development of UN sanctions has been characterised by two different trends: individualization and formalization. Whereas the first process refers to the evolution from comprehensive to targeted sanctions, the trend towards formalisation should be understood in terms of both substance and procedure, with regard to the creation, operation and termination of sanctions. It is important to stress the interplay between UN sanctions regimes and the initiatives taken by other international organisations with respect to the same situation: in particular, the EU is currently the only regional actor imposing restrictive measures against non-members.
Sossai, M. (2019). Modelli di regimi sanzionatori nella prassi contemporanea. In Temi e questioni di Diritto dell'Unione Europea: Scritti offerti a Claudia Morviducci (pp. 551-560). Bari : Cacucci Editore.