The results of design activities must be transmitted to people who need them for their tasks, e.g., manufacturing, construction, software development, etc. The objectives of this chapter are to understand how design information should be represented and conveyed using standards, geometric drawings, design matrices for the complete system, DPi/DPj matrices, and industry-specific functional diagrams. The goal of this chapter is to introduce how the design information is typically conveyed to its ultimate user. Proper descriptions of design must address the needs of the users of the design results. For example, the manufacturing group may need the information on the geometry of each part, acceptable tolerances for each dimension, materials, the hardness of each piece, the complete assembly of the system, etc. On the other hand, those charged with the task of evaluating and implementing the design may need information on the entire assembly of parts, operating procedure, power requirements, etc. To facilitate these processes, different professional groups have established commonly used methods, conventions, and practices. The “design information” is typically represented using representation methods that are used in a given profession, sometimes adapted by each company to deal with their specific needs. This chapter reviews some of the fundamental representation methods of design that have been developed by various professional groups, typically non-government entities. For instance, there are national professional organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) that have established the standards for certain products such as pressure vessels and boilers to assure the safety of certain products. Globally, there is the International Organizations for Standardization (ISO), an international non-governmental organization that has established voluntary international standards, which facilitates world trade by providing common standards worldwide. In this book that emphasizes Axiomatic Design (AD), the relationship between functional requirements (FRs) and design parameters (DPs) is the basis for product design. In AD, the design process begins with the identification of FRs first, followed by the development of DPs, which are specifically chosen to satisfy the FRs. Therefore, in AD, the relationship between FRs and DPs forms the core of design representation, in addition to the representation of geometric shapes in the case of the design that involves solid objects. A design matrix is a form of design representation that describes the relationship between the functions and physical entities. The design matrix between FRs and DPs is the most effective means of identifying the coupled designs that are to be avoided in AD. To highlight the powerfulness of the design matrix representation and the wide applicability of AD, several families of representations, as stated above, have been considered. In particular, the chapter is structured in such a way to explain, in a first instance, what should be the connections between designing with AD and representing the results. The concept of module and tolerance will be introduced. Therefore, representation families will be presented: standard mechanical drawing, piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID), and software. A case study is presented as well, to bring a real example of a complete application of AD. The choice to illustrate both mechanical drawing and software representation comes to the authors’ will to emphasize that the design process should follow a structured approach, in particular, the AD one, regardless the nature of what is designed. Proper descriptions of a design must address the needs of a variety of users of the design information. Some may only be interested in knowing the functional and physical relationships in terms of FR and DP hierarchy. Some may need to exact geometric details of the designed parts in terms of DPs, their tolerances, the geometric shape, and their relationships. Some may need the information on the assembly of DPs, i.e., information on DPi/DPj relationships. The objectives of this chapter are to describe how design information is typically represented and conveyed using standards, geometric drawings, design matrices, DPi/DPj matrices, and industry-specific functional diagrams.

Citti, P., Giorgetti, A., Ceccanti, F., Rolli, F., Foith-Förster, P., Brown, C.A. (2021). Design Representations. In M.C. Nam Pyo Suh (a cura di), Design Engineering and Science (pp. 117-165). Basel : Springer, Cham [10.1007/978-3-030-49232-8_4].

Design Representations

Alessandro Giorgetti
;
2021

Abstract

The results of design activities must be transmitted to people who need them for their tasks, e.g., manufacturing, construction, software development, etc. The objectives of this chapter are to understand how design information should be represented and conveyed using standards, geometric drawings, design matrices for the complete system, DPi/DPj matrices, and industry-specific functional diagrams. The goal of this chapter is to introduce how the design information is typically conveyed to its ultimate user. Proper descriptions of design must address the needs of the users of the design results. For example, the manufacturing group may need the information on the geometry of each part, acceptable tolerances for each dimension, materials, the hardness of each piece, the complete assembly of the system, etc. On the other hand, those charged with the task of evaluating and implementing the design may need information on the entire assembly of parts, operating procedure, power requirements, etc. To facilitate these processes, different professional groups have established commonly used methods, conventions, and practices. The “design information” is typically represented using representation methods that are used in a given profession, sometimes adapted by each company to deal with their specific needs. This chapter reviews some of the fundamental representation methods of design that have been developed by various professional groups, typically non-government entities. For instance, there are national professional organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) that have established the standards for certain products such as pressure vessels and boilers to assure the safety of certain products. Globally, there is the International Organizations for Standardization (ISO), an international non-governmental organization that has established voluntary international standards, which facilitates world trade by providing common standards worldwide. In this book that emphasizes Axiomatic Design (AD), the relationship between functional requirements (FRs) and design parameters (DPs) is the basis for product design. In AD, the design process begins with the identification of FRs first, followed by the development of DPs, which are specifically chosen to satisfy the FRs. Therefore, in AD, the relationship between FRs and DPs forms the core of design representation, in addition to the representation of geometric shapes in the case of the design that involves solid objects. A design matrix is a form of design representation that describes the relationship between the functions and physical entities. The design matrix between FRs and DPs is the most effective means of identifying the coupled designs that are to be avoided in AD. To highlight the powerfulness of the design matrix representation and the wide applicability of AD, several families of representations, as stated above, have been considered. In particular, the chapter is structured in such a way to explain, in a first instance, what should be the connections between designing with AD and representing the results. The concept of module and tolerance will be introduced. Therefore, representation families will be presented: standard mechanical drawing, piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID), and software. A case study is presented as well, to bring a real example of a complete application of AD. The choice to illustrate both mechanical drawing and software representation comes to the authors’ will to emphasize that the design process should follow a structured approach, in particular, the AD one, regardless the nature of what is designed. Proper descriptions of a design must address the needs of a variety of users of the design information. Some may only be interested in knowing the functional and physical relationships in terms of FR and DP hierarchy. Some may need to exact geometric details of the designed parts in terms of DPs, their tolerances, the geometric shape, and their relationships. Some may need the information on the assembly of DPs, i.e., information on DPi/DPj relationships. The objectives of this chapter are to describe how design information is typically represented and conveyed using standards, geometric drawings, design matrices, DPi/DPj matrices, and industry-specific functional diagrams.
978-3-030-49231-1
Citti, P., Giorgetti, A., Ceccanti, F., Rolli, F., Foith-Förster, P., Brown, C.A. (2021). Design Representations. In M.C. Nam Pyo Suh (a cura di), Design Engineering and Science (pp. 117-165). Basel : Springer, Cham [10.1007/978-3-030-49232-8_4].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11590/398521
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