Background: A relevant burden of defective HIV-1 genomes populates PBMCs from HIV-1 infected patients, especially during HAART treatment. These viral genomes, although unable to codify for infectious viral particles, can express viral proteins which may affect functions of host cells as well as bystander ones. Cells expressing defective HIV-1 have a lifespan longer than that of cells producing infectious particles. Hence, their interaction with other cell types, including resting lymphocytes, is expected to occur frequently in tissues where HIV actively replicates. We investigated the effects of the expression of a prototype of functionally defective HIV-1 on bystander, unstimulated CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Results: We observed that unstimulated human primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes were activated and became permissive for HIV-1 replication when co-cultivated with cells expressing a functionally defective HIV-1 (F12/Hut-78 cells). This effect depended on the presence in F12/Hut-78 supernatants of nanovesicles we identified as exosomes. By inspecting the underlying mechanism, we found that ADAM17, i.e., a disintegrin and metalloprotease converting pro-TNF-alpha in its mature form, associated with exosomes from F12/Hut-78 cells, and played a key role in the HIV-1 replication in unstimulated CD4(+) T lymphocytes. In fact, the treatment with an inhibitor of ADAM17 abolished both activation and HIV-1 replication in unstimulated CD4(+) T lymphocytes. TNF-alpha appeared to be the downstream effector of ADAM17 since the treatment of unstimulated lymphocytes with antibodies against TNF-alpha or its receptors blocked the HIV-1 replication. Finally, we found that the expression of Nef(F12) in exosome-producing cells was sufficient to induce the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in unstimulated CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Conclusions: Exosomes from cells expressing a functionally defective mutant can induce cell activation and HIV-1 susceptibility in unstimulated CD4(+) T lymphocytes. This evidence highlights the relevance for AIDS pathogenesis of the expression of viral products from defective HIV-1 genomes.

Arenaccio, C., Chiozzini, C., Columba Cabezas, S., Manfredi, F., Federico, M. (2014). Cell activation and HIV-1 replication in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes ingesting exosomes from cells expressing defective HIV-1. RETROVIROLOGY, 11 [10.1186/1742-4690-11-46].

Cell activation and HIV-1 replication in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes ingesting exosomes from cells expressing defective HIV-1

ARENACCIO, CLAUDIA;
2014-01-01

Abstract

Background: A relevant burden of defective HIV-1 genomes populates PBMCs from HIV-1 infected patients, especially during HAART treatment. These viral genomes, although unable to codify for infectious viral particles, can express viral proteins which may affect functions of host cells as well as bystander ones. Cells expressing defective HIV-1 have a lifespan longer than that of cells producing infectious particles. Hence, their interaction with other cell types, including resting lymphocytes, is expected to occur frequently in tissues where HIV actively replicates. We investigated the effects of the expression of a prototype of functionally defective HIV-1 on bystander, unstimulated CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Results: We observed that unstimulated human primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes were activated and became permissive for HIV-1 replication when co-cultivated with cells expressing a functionally defective HIV-1 (F12/Hut-78 cells). This effect depended on the presence in F12/Hut-78 supernatants of nanovesicles we identified as exosomes. By inspecting the underlying mechanism, we found that ADAM17, i.e., a disintegrin and metalloprotease converting pro-TNF-alpha in its mature form, associated with exosomes from F12/Hut-78 cells, and played a key role in the HIV-1 replication in unstimulated CD4(+) T lymphocytes. In fact, the treatment with an inhibitor of ADAM17 abolished both activation and HIV-1 replication in unstimulated CD4(+) T lymphocytes. TNF-alpha appeared to be the downstream effector of ADAM17 since the treatment of unstimulated lymphocytes with antibodies against TNF-alpha or its receptors blocked the HIV-1 replication. Finally, we found that the expression of Nef(F12) in exosome-producing cells was sufficient to induce the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in unstimulated CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Conclusions: Exosomes from cells expressing a functionally defective mutant can induce cell activation and HIV-1 susceptibility in unstimulated CD4(+) T lymphocytes. This evidence highlights the relevance for AIDS pathogenesis of the expression of viral products from defective HIV-1 genomes.
Arenaccio, C., Chiozzini, C., Columba Cabezas, S., Manfredi, F., Federico, M. (2014). Cell activation and HIV-1 replication in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes ingesting exosomes from cells expressing defective HIV-1. RETROVIROLOGY, 11 [10.1186/1742-4690-11-46].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11590/134897
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