Plant polyamine oxidases (PAOs; EC 188.8.131.52) are hydrogen peroxide-producing enzymes supposedly involved in cell-wall differentiation processes and defence responses. Maize (Zea mays L.) PAO (MPAO) is a 53 kDa secretory glycoprotein, abundant in primary and secondary cell walls of several tissues. Using biochemical, histochemical, ultrastructural and immunocytochemical techniques, the distribution and subcellular compartmentalisation of MPAO in the primary root and mesocotyl of seedlings at different maturation stages or after growth under varying light conditions were analysed. In apical root tissues, MPAO immunoreactivity was mainly detected in the cytoplasmic compartment, while a lower immunoreactivity was observed in the cell walls. In the more mature, basal part of the root, intense immunogold labelling was found in the primary and secondary walls of protoxylem precursors and vessels, while endodermal cells and living metaxylem precursors were immunopositive both in their walls and in their thin cytoplasmic compartments. A re-distribution of MPAO protein from the cytoplasm toward the primary and secondary walls was also recognised when immunoreactivity of basal root tissues from 3-day-old seedlings was compared with that detected in 11-day-old tissues. Accordingly, biochemical analyses revealed MPAO entrapment in the extracellular matrix of mature tissues. In the mesocotyl, an enrichment of MPAO immunolabelling in the cell wall of protoxylem, metaxylem and epidermal tissues, as a function of light exposure, was observed. Taken together, these data support the hypothesised role of PAOs in cell-wall maturation. Moreover, the relevant intraprotoplasmic MPAO localisation observed mainly in differentiating root tissues suggests an additional role in intracellular production of hydrogen peroxide.
Cona, A., Moreno, S., Cenci, F., Federico, R., Angelini, R. (2005). Cellular re-distribution of flavin-containing polyamine oxidase in differentiating root and mesocotyl of Zea mays L. seedlings. PLANTA, 221(2), 265-276 [10.1007/s00425-004-1435-y].