SMO (spermine oxidase) and APAO (acetylpolyamine oxidase) are flavoenzymes that play a critical role in the catabolism of polyamines. Polyamines are basic regulators of cell growth and proliferation and their homoeostasis is crucial for cell life since dysregulation of polyamine metabolism has been linked with cancer. In vertebrates SMO specifically catalyses the oxidation of spermine, whereas APAO displays a wider specificity, being able to oxidize both N¹-acetylspermine and N¹-acetylspermidine, but not spermine. The molecular bases of the different substrate specificity of these two enzymes have remained so far elusive. However, previous molecular modelling, site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical characterization studies of the SMO enzyme-substrate complex have identified Glu²¹⁶-Ser²¹⁸ as a putative active site hot spot responsible for SMO substrate specificity. On the basis of these analyses, the SMO double mutants E216L/S218A and E216T/S218A have been produced and characterized by CD spectroscopy and steady-state and rapid kinetics experiments. The results obtained demonstrate that mutation E216L/S218A endows SMO with N¹-acetylspermine oxidase activity, uncovering one of the structural determinants that confer the exquisite and exclusive substrate specificity of SMO for spermine. These results provide the theoretical bases for the design of specific inhibitors either for SMO or APAO.
|Titolo:||The Glu²¹⁶/Ser²¹⁸ pocket is a major determinant of spermine oxidase substrate specificity|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|