High-frequency transducers, up to 35-50 MHz, are widely used in ophthalmic echography to image fine eye structures. Phased-array techniques are not practically applicable at such a high frequency, due to the too small size required for the single transducer element, and mechanical scanning is the only practical alternative. At present, all ophthalmic ultrasound systems use focused single-element, mechanically scanned probes. A good probe positioning and image evaluation feedback requires an image refresh-rate of about 15-30 frames per second, which is achieved in commercial mechanical scanning probes by using electromagnetic motors. In this work, we report the design, construction, and experimental characterization of the first mechanical scanning probe for ophthalmic echography based on a small piezoelectric ultrasound motor. The prototype probe reaches a scanning rate of 15 sectors per second, with very silent operation and little weight. The first high-frequency echographic images obtained with the prototype probe are presented.
R., C., Caliano, G., A., C., A., S., AND M., P. (2005). Fast Scanning Probe for Ophthalmic Echography Using an Ultrasound Motor. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL, 52(11), 2039-2046 [10.1109/TUFFC.2005.1561673].