Medical research and advances in biological knowledge have produced an improvement in the quality of human life and an increased life expectancy: However, for the incurably ill, life-prolonging techniques have resulted only in their illnesses - and, pointlessly, the suffering these bring - lasting longer. Very often in the terminal phases the patient is incapable of understanding and has no way of consenting to or refusing medical treatment: This essay surveys the legal and ethical obstacles to the introduction in Italy of living wills and advance directive, and examines experiences in the USA, Great Britain, Germany and Austria.
Spoto, G. (2005). DIRETTIVE ANTICIPATE, TESTAMENTO BIOLOGICO E TUTELA DELLA VITA. EUROPA E DIRITTO PRIVATO.