An easy method of incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles into Nafion perfluorinated ionomer is proposed. Ultrathin films of Nafion were prepared by employing the Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) technique. The pressure-area isotherm study of a Langmuir monolayer of Nafion at the air-water interface on different concentrations of NaCl as the subphase allowed us to find the best experimental conditions for the deposition of stable Langmuir-Schaefer films. Incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles was performed by dipping Nafion LS films in a solution of TiO2 nanoparticles. The uniformity of the TiO2 incorporation was detected by UV-visible spectroscopy. The morphology of the Nafion, Nafion/TiO2 nanoparticles thin films, and the changes due to the annealing procedure were investigated by atomic force microscopy. Interestingly, the AFM investigation showed that Nafion and Nafion/TiO2 LS films have thermal stability up to 600°C
Notargiacomo, A., Nicolini, C., Bertoncello, P. (2005). Langmuir-Schaefer films of Nafion with incorporated TiO2 nanoparticles. LANGMUIR, 21(1),, 172-177.