"Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the development and application of a numerical formulation for the structural dynamics and aeroelastic analysis of new generation helicopter and tiltrotor rotor blades. These are characterized by a curvilinear elastic axis, typically with the. presence of tip sweep and anhedral angles. The structural dynamics model implemented is based on nonlinear, flap-lag-torsion, rotating beam equations that. are valid for slender, homogeneous, isotropic, non-uniform, twisted blades undergoing moderate displacements. A second-order approximation scheme. for strain-displacement is adopted. Aerodynamic contributions for aeroelastic applications are derived from sectional theories, with inclusion of wake inflow models to take into account three-dimensional effects. The numerical integration is obtained through implementation within the COMSOL Multiphysics Finite-Element-Method (FEM) software code, considering the elastic axis of arbitrary curvilinear shape.. "
Piccione, E., Bernardini, G., Gennaretti, M. (2012). Structural-Aeroelastic Finite Element Modeling for Advanced-Geometry Rotor Blades. AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING AND AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY, 84(6), 367-375 [10.1108/00022661211272873].