Since the nineties the Dutch territory is affected by important urban transformations, and Amsterdam in particular involving large brownfield sites as a result of the reorganization of port activities. These areas, in strategic locations for accessibility and proximity to the city center, are particularly interesting for national policies set out in the Seventies and Eighties on the urban revitalization and expansion inspired by the model of the compact city. To govern such complex processes of urban transformation the city of Amsterdam developed a planning system articulated in several phases, called "Plaberum" (which stands for Plan-en besluitvormingsproces Ruimtelijke maatregelen), established in 1980 and updated in 2003. During the planning experiences, involving several piers of the harbor and former industrial areas, the Plaberum system evolved adapting to the progressive strengthening of the role of private actors involved (developers, housing associations, current and future residents) who act more effectively in decision-making. An open process was set up that engages all parties, which relies on outside professionals to coordinate and mediate between different positions and provide an accomplished and appealing urban image. The role of private parties also has a decisive effect in the choice of urban models, which tend to respond to the strong demand for owned homes that emerges in the Nineties. The experiments range from models focusing on the individual dimension of houses with direct access from the street and the blocks, able to create a unique and more urban character; from models including the creation of a urban tissue and the combination of isolated buildings connected through the public space, researching a balance between uniformity and differentiation. This wealth of experience can now be evaluated in its results in terms of urban space.
Farina, M. (2014). Pianificare la riconversione. Prove di città ad Amsterdam e dintorni. RASSEGNA DI ARCHITETTURA E URBANISTICA, 50-58.