Bubble content influences magma rheology and, thus, styles of volcanic eruption. Increasing magma vesicularity affects the bulk viscosity of the bubble-melt suspension and has the potential to promote non-Newtonian behavior in the form of shear localization or brittle failure. Here, we present a series of high temperature uniaxial deformation experiments designed to investigate the effect of bubbles on the magma bulk viscosity. The starting materials are cores of natural rhyolitic obsidian synthesized to have variable vesicularity (φ=0-66%). The foamed cores were deformed isothermally (T=750°C) at atmospheric conditions using a high-temperature uniaxial press under constant displacement rates (strain rates between 0.5-1×10-4 s-1) and to total strains of 10-40%. The viscosity of the bubble-free melt (η0) was measured by micropenetration and parallel plate methods to establish a baseline for experiments on the vesicle rich cores. At the experimental conditions, rising vesicle content produces a marked decrease in bulk viscosity that is best described by a two-parameter empirical equation: log10ηBulk=log10β0-1.47[φ/(1-φ)]0.48. Our parameterization of the bubble-melt rheology is combined with Maxwell relaxation theory to map the potential onset of non-Newtonian behavior (shear localization) in magmas as a function of melt viscosity, vesicularity, and strain rate. For low degrees of strain (i.e. as in our study), the rheological properties of vesicular magmas under different flow types (pure vs. simple shear) are indistinguishable. For high strain or strain rates where simple and pure shear viscosity values may diverge, our model represents a maximum boundary condition. Vesicular magmas can behave as non-Newtonian fluids at lower strain rates than unvesiculated melts, thereby, promoting shear localization and (explosive or non-explosive) magma fragmentation. The extent of shear localization in magma influences outgassing efficiency, thereby, affecting magma ascent and the potential for explosivity.
Vona, A., Ryan, A.G., Russell, J.K., & Romano, C. (2016). Models for viscosity and shear localization in bubble-rich magmas. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS, 449, 26-38.
|Titolo:||Models for viscosity and shear localization in bubble-rich magmas|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Citazione:||Vona, A., Ryan, A.G., Russell, J.K., & Romano, C. (2016). Models for viscosity and shear localization in bubble-rich magmas. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS, 449, 26-38.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|