The objective of the present study was to analyze the drivers’ behavior while approaching pedestrian crossings under different driver – pedestrian interaction conditions and to assess the effectiveness of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADASs) for pedestrian detection among several road environments. Three different road environments were implemented in a fixed-base driving simulator: urban road, sub – urban road and rural road. Several driver – pedestrian interactions were implemented in addition to the pedestrian absence condition. The simulated ADAS provided a visual – auditive message. Forty – five participants drove the three road environments scenarios in which three pedestrian crossroads were implemented (pedestrian absence, pedestrian presence with ADAS and pedestrian presence without ADAS). Overall, 369 driver speed profiles were plotted from 150 m before each pedestrian crossroad. ADAS affected the driver behavior in the interaction conditions with Time-To-Zebraarrive < 4 s (TTZarr*< 4 s), which return aggressive drivers behaviors. As expected, no effect was observed for the averagely cautious (4 s < TTZarr* ≤ 6 s) and very cautious drivers (TTZarr* > 6 s). The effect of ADAS among the road environments was similar for the urban and sub – urban road, resulting in a less abrupt braking maneuver that began in advance compared to that adopted in ADAS absence condition. For the rural road, the main effect was the reaching of a lower minimum speed near the pedestrian crossing and an advanced end of braking maneuver, highlighting the ability of the driver to complete a safer and effective yielding maneuver.
Bella, F., Natale, V., Silvestri, M. (2017). Driver-pedestrian interaction under different road environments. TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PROCEDIA, 27, 148-155 [10.1016/j.trpro.2017.12.093].