Unconfined three-dimensional gravity currents generated by lock exchange using a small dividing gate in a sufficiently large tank are investigated by means of large eddy simulations under the Boussinesq approximation, with Grashof numbers varying over five orders of magnitudes. The study shows that, after an initial transient, the flow can be separated into an axisymmetric expansion and a globally translating motion. In particular, the circular frontline spreads like a constant-flow-rate, axially symmetric gravity current about a virtual source translating along the symmetry axis. The flow is characterised by the presence of lobe and cleft instabilities and hydrodynamic shocks. Depending on the Grashof number, the shocks can either be isolated or produced continuously. In the latter case a typical ring structure is visible in the density and velocity fields. The analysis of the frontal spreading of the axisymmetric part of the current indicates the presence of three regimes, namely, a slumping phase, an inertial-buoyancy equilibrium regime and a viscous-buoyancy equilibrium regime. The viscous-buoyancy phase is in good agreement with the model of Huppert (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 121, 1982, pp. 43-58), while the inertial phase is consistent with the experiments of Britter (Atmos. Environ., vol. 13, 1979, pp. 1241-1247), conducted for purely axially symmetric, constant inflow, gravity currents. The adoption of the slumping model of Huppert & Simpson (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 99 (04), 1980, pp. 785-799), which is here extended to the case of constant-flow-rate cylindrical currents, allows reconciling of the different theories about the initial radial spreading in the context of different asymptotic regimes. As expected, the slumping phase is governed by the Froude number at the lock's gate, whereas the transition to the viscous phase depends on both the Froude number at the gate and the Grashof number. The identification of the inertial-buoyancy regime in the presence of hydrodynamic shocks for this class of flows is important, due to the lack of analytical solutions for the similarity problem in the framework of shallow water theory. This fact has considerably slowed the research on variable-flow-rate axisymmetric gravity currents, as opposed to the rapid development of the knowledge about cylindrical constant-volume and planar gravity currents, despite their own environmental relevance.

Inghilesi, R., Adduce, C., Lombardi, V., Roman, F., Armenio, V. (2018). Axisymmetric three-dimensional gravity currents generated by lock exchange. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS, 851, 507-544 [10.1017/jfm.2018.500].

Axisymmetric three-dimensional gravity currents generated by lock exchange

Inghilesi, Roberto
;
Adduce, Claudia;Lombardi, Valentina;Armenio, Vincenzo
2018-01-01

Abstract

Unconfined three-dimensional gravity currents generated by lock exchange using a small dividing gate in a sufficiently large tank are investigated by means of large eddy simulations under the Boussinesq approximation, with Grashof numbers varying over five orders of magnitudes. The study shows that, after an initial transient, the flow can be separated into an axisymmetric expansion and a globally translating motion. In particular, the circular frontline spreads like a constant-flow-rate, axially symmetric gravity current about a virtual source translating along the symmetry axis. The flow is characterised by the presence of lobe and cleft instabilities and hydrodynamic shocks. Depending on the Grashof number, the shocks can either be isolated or produced continuously. In the latter case a typical ring structure is visible in the density and velocity fields. The analysis of the frontal spreading of the axisymmetric part of the current indicates the presence of three regimes, namely, a slumping phase, an inertial-buoyancy equilibrium regime and a viscous-buoyancy equilibrium regime. The viscous-buoyancy phase is in good agreement with the model of Huppert (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 121, 1982, pp. 43-58), while the inertial phase is consistent with the experiments of Britter (Atmos. Environ., vol. 13, 1979, pp. 1241-1247), conducted for purely axially symmetric, constant inflow, gravity currents. The adoption of the slumping model of Huppert & Simpson (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 99 (04), 1980, pp. 785-799), which is here extended to the case of constant-flow-rate cylindrical currents, allows reconciling of the different theories about the initial radial spreading in the context of different asymptotic regimes. As expected, the slumping phase is governed by the Froude number at the lock's gate, whereas the transition to the viscous phase depends on both the Froude number at the gate and the Grashof number. The identification of the inertial-buoyancy regime in the presence of hydrodynamic shocks for this class of flows is important, due to the lack of analytical solutions for the similarity problem in the framework of shallow water theory. This fact has considerably slowed the research on variable-flow-rate axisymmetric gravity currents, as opposed to the rapid development of the knowledge about cylindrical constant-volume and planar gravity currents, despite their own environmental relevance.
Inghilesi, R., Adduce, C., Lombardi, V., Roman, F., Armenio, V. (2018). Axisymmetric three-dimensional gravity currents generated by lock exchange. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS, 851, 507-544 [10.1017/jfm.2018.500].
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
2018_JFM.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Versione Editoriale (PDF)
Licenza: DRM non definito
Dimensione 1.15 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.15 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11590/338567
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 32
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 32
social impact