Introduction: The influence of sex and gender is particularly relevant in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as well as in several aspects of drug pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Anatomical and physiological differences between the sexes may influence the activity of many drugs, including the possibility of their interaction with other drugs, bioactive compounds, foods and beverages. Phenolic compounds could interact with our organism at organ, cellular, and molecular levels triggering a preventive action against chronic diseases, including CVD. Results: This article will review the role of sex on the activity of these bioactive molecules, considering the existence of sex differences in oxidative stress. It describes the pharmacokinetics of phenolic compounds, their effects on vessels, on cardiovascular system, and during development, including the role of nuclear receptors and microbiota. Conclusions: Although there is a large gap between the knowledge of the sex differences in the phenolic compounds’ activity and safety, and the urgent need for more research, available data underlie the possibility that plant-derived phenolic compounds could differently influence the health of male and female subjects.
Campesi, I., Marino, M., Cipolletti, M., Romani, A., Franconi, F. (2018). Put “gender glasses” on the effects of phenolic compounds on cardiovascular function and diseases. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, 57(8), 2677-2691 [10.1007/s00394-018-1695-0].