Iron is an essential nutrient for nearly all forms of life, although scarcely available due to its poor solubility in nature and complex formation in higher eukaryotes. Microorganisms have evolved a vast array of strategies to acquire iron, the most common being the production of high-affinity iron chelators, termed siderophores. The opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa synthesizes and secretes two siderophores, pyoverdine (PVD) and pyochelin (PCH), characterized by very different structural and functional properties. Due to its chemical similarity with Fe(III), Ga(III) interferes with several iron-dependent biological pathways. Both PVD and PCH bind Fe(III) and Ga(III). However, while the Ga-PCH complex is more effective than Ga(III) in inhibiting P. aeruginosa growth, PVD acts as a Ga(III) scavenger and protects bacteria from Ga(III) toxicity. To gain more insight into the different outcomes of the biological paths observed for the Fe(III) and Ga(III)-siderophore complexes, better knowledge is needed of their coordination geometries that directly influence the metal complexes chemical stability. The valence state and coordination geometry of the Ga-PCH and Fe-PCH complexes has recently been investigated in detail; as for PVD complexes, several NMR structural studies of Ga(III)-PVD are reported in the literature, using Ga(III) as a diamagnetic isosteric substitute for Fe(III). In this work, we applied up-to-date spectroscopic techniques as synchrotron-radiation-induced X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy coupled with molecular modeling to describe the electronic structure and coordination chemistry of Fe and Ga coordinative sites in PVD metal complexes. These techniques allowed us to unambiguously determine the oxidation state of the coordinative ions and to gather interesting information about the similarities and differences between the two coordination compounds as induced by the different metal.

Nicolafrancesco, C., Porcaro, F., Pis, I., Nappini, S., Simonelli, L., Marini, C., et al. (2019). Gallium- and Iron-Pyoverdine Coordination Compounds Investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY [10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b03574].

Gallium- and Iron-Pyoverdine Coordination Compounds Investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

NICOLAFRANCESCO, CHIARA;Frangipani, Emanuela;Visaggio, Daniela;Visca, Paolo;Mobilio, Settimio;Meneghini, Carlo;Iucci, Giovanna;Battocchio, Chiara
2019-01-01

Abstract

Iron is an essential nutrient for nearly all forms of life, although scarcely available due to its poor solubility in nature and complex formation in higher eukaryotes. Microorganisms have evolved a vast array of strategies to acquire iron, the most common being the production of high-affinity iron chelators, termed siderophores. The opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa synthesizes and secretes two siderophores, pyoverdine (PVD) and pyochelin (PCH), characterized by very different structural and functional properties. Due to its chemical similarity with Fe(III), Ga(III) interferes with several iron-dependent biological pathways. Both PVD and PCH bind Fe(III) and Ga(III). However, while the Ga-PCH complex is more effective than Ga(III) in inhibiting P. aeruginosa growth, PVD acts as a Ga(III) scavenger and protects bacteria from Ga(III) toxicity. To gain more insight into the different outcomes of the biological paths observed for the Fe(III) and Ga(III)-siderophore complexes, better knowledge is needed of their coordination geometries that directly influence the metal complexes chemical stability. The valence state and coordination geometry of the Ga-PCH and Fe-PCH complexes has recently been investigated in detail; as for PVD complexes, several NMR structural studies of Ga(III)-PVD are reported in the literature, using Ga(III) as a diamagnetic isosteric substitute for Fe(III). In this work, we applied up-to-date spectroscopic techniques as synchrotron-radiation-induced X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy coupled with molecular modeling to describe the electronic structure and coordination chemistry of Fe and Ga coordinative sites in PVD metal complexes. These techniques allowed us to unambiguously determine the oxidation state of the coordinative ions and to gather interesting information about the similarities and differences between the two coordination compounds as induced by the different metal.
2019
Nicolafrancesco, C., Porcaro, F., Pis, I., Nappini, S., Simonelli, L., Marini, C., et al. (2019). Gallium- and Iron-Pyoverdine Coordination Compounds Investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY [10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b03574].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11590/348440
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