The definition of hydrogeological conceptual models sometimes suffers on uncertainties depending on the available dataset. The availability and the elaboration of long-term hydrogeological dataset allow ensuring a better definition of the aquifer dynamics and features. One of the main features, which can benefice on long-term datasets, is the recharge quantification. According to the literature, several methods exist to calculate the recharge and to get a deeper insight in recharge mode assessment. Most of them allow the quantification of infiltrating water by means of meteo-climatic data and land use information. In this research, a combined approach on hydrogeological time-series is proposed. The Cross-Correlation among the rainfall and the piezometric levels was applied to point out the response time of each aquifer layer. In addition, the Water Table Fluctuation method was used to indirectly quantify the recharge. The study area is the Roccamonfina Volcano caldera (Italy), where lateral inflows are absent, and the almost total natural groundwater discharge occurs in the Savone delle Ferriere stream. Here, a monitoring scheme of the major hydrogeological features was implemented. The local rainfall, the groundwater levels in 2 wells tapping the different aquifer layers, and the river stage of the Savone delle Ferriere stream were measured daily during the 2016–2017 period. The analyses defined different recharge modes for each aquifer layer. The aquifer recharge rates, calculated with different approaches, are comparable to each other and in line with the mean groundwater discharge through the Savone delle Ferriere streambed springs.
Viaroli, S., Di Curzio, D., Lepore, D., Mazza, R. (2019). Multiparameter daily time-series analysis to groundwater recharge assessment in a caldera aquifer: Roccamonfina Volcano, Italy. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 676, 501-513 [10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.327].