Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used as antibacterial agents and anticancer drugs, but often their low stability limits their mass production and broad applications. The use of niosomes as a carrier to protect and envelop AgNPs gives a new perspective to solve these problems. In this study, AgNPs were functionalized with sodium 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonate (3MPS) to induce hydrophilic behavior, improving loading in Tween 20 and Span 20 niosomes (NioTw20 and NioSp20, respectively). Entrapment efficiency was evaluated by UV analyses and is around 1-4%. Dimensions were investigated by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS) (<2RH> = 140 ± 4 nm and <2RH> = 251 ± 1 nm respectively for NioTw20 + AgNPs and NioSp20 + AgNPs) and were compared with those by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and small angle X ray scattering (SAXS) analyses. Stability was assessed in water up to 90 days, and both in bovine serum and human serum for up to 8 h. In order to characterize the local structure of niosomes, SAXS measurements have been performed on Tween 20 and Span 20 empty niosomes and loaded with AgNPs. The release profiles of hydrophilic probe calcein and lipophilic probe Nile Red were performed in HEPES buffer and in human serum. All these features contribute to conclude that the two systems, NioTw20 + AgNPs and NioSp20 + AgNPs, are suitable and promising in the field of biological applications.
Rinaldi, F., Del Favero, E., Moeller, J., Hanieh, P.N., Passeri, D., Rossi, M., et al. (2019). Hydrophilic Silver Nanoparticles Loaded into Niosomes: Physical-Chemical Characterization in View of Biological Applications. NANOMATERIALS, 9(8), 1177 [10.3390/nano9081177].