Thyroid hormones T3 and T4 (thyroxine) control a wide variety of effects related to development, differentiation, growth and metabolism, through their interaction with nuclear receptors. But thyroid hormones also produce non-genomic effects that typically start at the plasma membrane and are mediated mainly by integrin avb3, although other receptors such as TRa and TRb are also able to elicit non-genomic responses. In the liver, the effects of thyroid hormones appear to be particularly important. The liver is able to regenerate, but it is subject to pathologies that may lead to cancer, such as fibrosis, cirrhosis, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In addition, cancer cells undergo a reprogramming of their metabolism, resulting in drastic changes such as aerobic glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation. As a consequence, the pyruvate kinase isoform M2, the rate-limiting enzyme of glycolysis, is dysregulated, and this is considered an important factor in tumorigenesis. Redox equilibrium is also important, in fact cancer cells give rise to the production of more reactive oxygen species (ROS) than normal cells. This increase may favor the survival and propagation of cancer cells. We evaluate the possible mechanisms involving the plasma membrane receptor integrin avb3 that may lead to cancer progression. Studying diseases that affect the liver and their experimental models may help to unravel the cellular pathways mediated by integrin avb3 that can lead to liver cancer. Inhibitors of integrin avb3 might represent a future therapeutic tool against liver cancer. We also include information on the possible role of exosomes in liver cancer, as well as on recent strategies such as organoids and spheroids, which may provide a new tool for research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine.

Gionfra, F., De Vito, P., Pallottini, V., Lin, H., Davis, P.J., Pedersen, J.Z., et al. (2019). The Role of Thyroid Hormones in Hepatocyte Proliferation and Liver Cancer. FRONTIERS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY, 10 [10.3389/fendo.2019.00532].

The Role of Thyroid Hormones in Hepatocyte Proliferation and Liver Cancer

Gionfra, Fabio;Pallottini, Valentina
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Incerpi, Sandra
2019

Abstract

Thyroid hormones T3 and T4 (thyroxine) control a wide variety of effects related to development, differentiation, growth and metabolism, through their interaction with nuclear receptors. But thyroid hormones also produce non-genomic effects that typically start at the plasma membrane and are mediated mainly by integrin avb3, although other receptors such as TRa and TRb are also able to elicit non-genomic responses. In the liver, the effects of thyroid hormones appear to be particularly important. The liver is able to regenerate, but it is subject to pathologies that may lead to cancer, such as fibrosis, cirrhosis, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In addition, cancer cells undergo a reprogramming of their metabolism, resulting in drastic changes such as aerobic glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation. As a consequence, the pyruvate kinase isoform M2, the rate-limiting enzyme of glycolysis, is dysregulated, and this is considered an important factor in tumorigenesis. Redox equilibrium is also important, in fact cancer cells give rise to the production of more reactive oxygen species (ROS) than normal cells. This increase may favor the survival and propagation of cancer cells. We evaluate the possible mechanisms involving the plasma membrane receptor integrin avb3 that may lead to cancer progression. Studying diseases that affect the liver and their experimental models may help to unravel the cellular pathways mediated by integrin avb3 that can lead to liver cancer. Inhibitors of integrin avb3 might represent a future therapeutic tool against liver cancer. We also include information on the possible role of exosomes in liver cancer, as well as on recent strategies such as organoids and spheroids, which may provide a new tool for research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine.
Gionfra, F., De Vito, P., Pallottini, V., Lin, H., Davis, P.J., Pedersen, J.Z., et al. (2019). The Role of Thyroid Hormones in Hepatocyte Proliferation and Liver Cancer. FRONTIERS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY, 10 [10.3389/fendo.2019.00532].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11590/354586
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