A review of the literature on autonomous vehicles has shown that they offer several benefits, such as reducing traffic congestion and emissions, and improving transport accessibility. Until the highest level of automation is achieved, humans will remain an important integral of the driving cycle, which necessitates to fully understand their role in automated driving. A difficult research topic involves an understanding of whether a period of automated driving is likely to reduce driver fatigue rather than increase the risk of distraction, particularly when drivers are involved in a secondary task while driving. The main aim of this research comprises assessing the effects of an automation period on drivers, in terms of driving performance and safety implications. A specific focus is set on the car-following maneuver. A driving simulator experiment has been designed for this purpose. In particular, each participant was requested to submit to a virtual scenario twice, with level-three driving automation: one drive consisting of Full Manual Control Mode (FM); the other comprising an Automated Control Mode (AM) activated in the midst of the scenario. During the automation mode, the drivers were asked to watch a movie on a tablet inside the vehicle. When the drivers had to take control of the vehicle, two car-following maneuvers were planned, by simulating a slow-moving vehicle in the right lane in the meanwhile a platoon of vehicles in the overtaking lane discouraged the passing maneuver. Various driving performances (speeds, accelerations, etc.) and surrogate safety measures (PET and TTC) were collected and analysed, focusing on car-following maneuvers. The overall results indicated a more dangerous behavior of drivers who were previously subjected to driving automation; the percentage of drivers who did not apply the brakes and headed into the overtaking lane despite the presence of a platoon of fast-moving vehicles with unsafe gaps between them was higher in AM drive than in FM drive. Conversely, for drivers who preferred to brake, it was noted that those who had already experienced automated driving, adopted a more careful behavior during the braking maneuver to avoid a collision. Finally, with regard to drivers who had decided to overtake the braking vehicle, it should be noted that drivers who had already experienced automated driving did not change their behavior whilst overtaking the stopped lead vehicle.

Calvi, A., D'Amico, F., Ferrante, C., BIANCHINI CIAMPOLI, L. (2020). A driving simulator study to assess driver performance during a car-following maneuver after switching from automated control to manual control. TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART F: TRAFFIC PSYCHOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR, 70, 58-67 [10.1016/j.trf.2020.02.014].

A driving simulator study to assess driver performance during a car-following maneuver after switching from automated control to manual control

Alessandro Calvi;Fabrizio D'Amico;Chiara Ferrante;Luca Bianchini Ciampoli
2020-01-01

Abstract

A review of the literature on autonomous vehicles has shown that they offer several benefits, such as reducing traffic congestion and emissions, and improving transport accessibility. Until the highest level of automation is achieved, humans will remain an important integral of the driving cycle, which necessitates to fully understand their role in automated driving. A difficult research topic involves an understanding of whether a period of automated driving is likely to reduce driver fatigue rather than increase the risk of distraction, particularly when drivers are involved in a secondary task while driving. The main aim of this research comprises assessing the effects of an automation period on drivers, in terms of driving performance and safety implications. A specific focus is set on the car-following maneuver. A driving simulator experiment has been designed for this purpose. In particular, each participant was requested to submit to a virtual scenario twice, with level-three driving automation: one drive consisting of Full Manual Control Mode (FM); the other comprising an Automated Control Mode (AM) activated in the midst of the scenario. During the automation mode, the drivers were asked to watch a movie on a tablet inside the vehicle. When the drivers had to take control of the vehicle, two car-following maneuvers were planned, by simulating a slow-moving vehicle in the right lane in the meanwhile a platoon of vehicles in the overtaking lane discouraged the passing maneuver. Various driving performances (speeds, accelerations, etc.) and surrogate safety measures (PET and TTC) were collected and analysed, focusing on car-following maneuvers. The overall results indicated a more dangerous behavior of drivers who were previously subjected to driving automation; the percentage of drivers who did not apply the brakes and headed into the overtaking lane despite the presence of a platoon of fast-moving vehicles with unsafe gaps between them was higher in AM drive than in FM drive. Conversely, for drivers who preferred to brake, it was noted that those who had already experienced automated driving, adopted a more careful behavior during the braking maneuver to avoid a collision. Finally, with regard to drivers who had decided to overtake the braking vehicle, it should be noted that drivers who had already experienced automated driving did not change their behavior whilst overtaking the stopped lead vehicle.
Calvi, A., D'Amico, F., Ferrante, C., BIANCHINI CIAMPOLI, L. (2020). A driving simulator study to assess driver performance during a car-following maneuver after switching from automated control to manual control. TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART F: TRAFFIC PSYCHOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR, 70, 58-67 [10.1016/j.trf.2020.02.014].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11590/362473
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