The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a network of proteins regulating many aspects of human physiology, including cardiovascular, pulmonary, and immune system physiology. The RAS is a complicated network of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) (i.e., AT1R, AT2R, MASR, and MRGD) orchestrating the effects of several hormones (i.e., angiotensin II, angiotensin (1–7), and alamandine) produced by protease-based transmembrane receptors (ACE1 and ACE2). Two signaling axes have been identified in the RAS endocrine system that mediate the proliferative actions of angiotensin II (i.e., the AT1R-based pathway) or the anti-proliferative effects of RAS hormones (i.e., the AT2R-, MAS-, and MRGD-based pathways). Disruption of the balance between these two axes can cause different diseases (e.g., cardiovascular pathologies and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2- (SARS-CoV-2)-based COVID-19 disease). It is now accepted that all the components of the RAS endocrine system are expressed in cancer, including cancer of the breast. Breast cancer (BC) is a multifactorial pathology for which there is a continuous need to identify novel drugs. Here, I reviewed the possible roles of both axes of the RAS endocrine network as potential druggable pathways in BC. Remarkably, the analysis of the current knowledge of the different GPCRs of the RAS molecular system not only confirms that AT1R could be considered a drug target and that its inhibition by losartan and candesartan could be useful in the treatment of BC, but also identifies Mas-related GPCR member D (MRGD) as a druggable protein. Overall, the RAS of GPCRs offers multifaceted
Acconcia, F. (2020). The Network of Angiotensin Receptors in Breast Cancer. CELLS.