The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the level of amputation and various prosthetic devices on the muscle activation of the sound limb in people with unilateral transfemoral and transtibial amputation. We calculated the global coactivation of 12 muscles using the timevarying multimuscle coactivation function method in 37 subjects with unilateral transfemoral amputation (10, 16, and 11 with mechanical, electronic, and bionic prostheses, respectively), 11 subjects with transtibial amputation, and 22 healthy subjects representing the control group. The results highlighted that people with amputation had a global coactivation temporal profile similar to that of healthy subjects. However, amputation increased the level of the simultaneous activation of many muscles during the loading response and push-off phases of the gait cycle and decreased it in the midstance and swing subphases. This increased coactivation probably plays a role in prosthetic gait asymmetry and energy consumption. Furthermore, people with amputation and wearing electronic prosthesis showed lower global coactivation when compared with people wearing mechanical and bionic prostheses. These findings suggest that the global lower limb coactivation behavior can be a useful tool to analyze the motor control strategies adopted and the ability to adapt to the prosthetic device.
Tatarelli, A., Serrao, M., Varrecchia, T., Fiori, L., Draicchio, F., Silvetti, A., et al. (2020). Global muscle coactivation of the sound limb in gait of people with transfemoral and transtibial amputation. SENSORS, 20(9), 2543 [10.3390/s20092543].