HIV-1 infection is efficiently controlled by combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART). However, despite preventing disease progression, cART does not eradicate virus infection which persists in a latent form for an individual's lifetime. The latent reservoir comprises memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells; however, for the most part, the reservoir is generated by virus entry into activated CD4+ T lymphocytes committed to return to a resting state, even though resting CD4+ T lymphocytes can be latently infected as well. The HIV-1 reservoir is not recognized by the immune system, is quite stable, and has the potential to re-seed systemic viremia upon cART interruption. Viral rebound can occur even after a long period of cART interruption. This event is most likely a consequence of the extended half-life of the HIV-1 reservoir, the maintenance of which is not clearly understood. Several recent studies have identified extracellular vesicles (EVs) as a driving force contributing to HIV-1 reservoir preservation. In this review, we discuss recent findings in the field of EV/HIV-1 interplay, and then propose a mechanism through which EVs may contribute to HIV-1 persistence despite cART. Understanding the basis of the HIV-1 reservoir maintenance continues to be a matter of great relevance in view of the limitations of current strategies aimed at HIV-1 eradication.

Olivetta, E., Chiozzini, C., Arenaccio, C., Manfredi, F., Ferrantelli, F., Federico, M. (2020). Extracellular vesicle-mediated intercellular communication in HIV-1 infection and its role in the reservoir maintenance. CYTOKINE & GROWTH FACTOR REVIEWS, 51, 40-48 [10.1016/j.cytogfr.2019.12.006].

Extracellular vesicle-mediated intercellular communication in HIV-1 infection and its role in the reservoir maintenance

Arenaccio C.;
2020

Abstract

HIV-1 infection is efficiently controlled by combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART). However, despite preventing disease progression, cART does not eradicate virus infection which persists in a latent form for an individual's lifetime. The latent reservoir comprises memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells; however, for the most part, the reservoir is generated by virus entry into activated CD4+ T lymphocytes committed to return to a resting state, even though resting CD4+ T lymphocytes can be latently infected as well. The HIV-1 reservoir is not recognized by the immune system, is quite stable, and has the potential to re-seed systemic viremia upon cART interruption. Viral rebound can occur even after a long period of cART interruption. This event is most likely a consequence of the extended half-life of the HIV-1 reservoir, the maintenance of which is not clearly understood. Several recent studies have identified extracellular vesicles (EVs) as a driving force contributing to HIV-1 reservoir preservation. In this review, we discuss recent findings in the field of EV/HIV-1 interplay, and then propose a mechanism through which EVs may contribute to HIV-1 persistence despite cART. Understanding the basis of the HIV-1 reservoir maintenance continues to be a matter of great relevance in view of the limitations of current strategies aimed at HIV-1 eradication.
Olivetta, E., Chiozzini, C., Arenaccio, C., Manfredi, F., Ferrantelli, F., Federico, M. (2020). Extracellular vesicle-mediated intercellular communication in HIV-1 infection and its role in the reservoir maintenance. CYTOKINE & GROWTH FACTOR REVIEWS, 51, 40-48 [10.1016/j.cytogfr.2019.12.006].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11590/374100
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