This study describes the investigations of failure in an e-type clip at the inside of rear arch, where the stresses are maximum owing to in-service loading and bending that occurs during forming operations. Visual inspection, stereomicroscopy, optical-microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) have been used as the characterization techniques. The microstructural, morphological changes were compared both in the central area and close to the location of failure in e-clip. During primary heating for forming steel rod into e-clip shape, the oxidation and decarburization occurs which caused the formation and penetration of iron oxide. The average thickness of oxide layer was found to be 20 µm with localized areas, where the oxides penetrated up to depth of 50 µm. During forming and shot peening operations, the iron oxide ingested in material at the inside circumferential region of rear arch, which triggered the initiation and propagation of fatigue phenomenon in service. The SEM-EDS analysis and fractography confirmed the presence of iron oxide and pearlite lamellar tearing at the crack initiation site, respectively. It is suggested to use electric induction heating for forming of steel rod into e-clip shape or increased the silicon content from two to three weight percent, which minimize the thickness of oxide layer. The finishing process by adding air spray or tapping of the rod after heating will further help to remove the scale at the critical region before taking it up for mechanical forming operations.

Ali, R., Shehbaz, T., Felicis, D.D., Sebastiani, M., Bemporad, E. (2020). Investigations into fatigue failure in e-type fastening clips used in railway tracks. PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. PART F, JOURNAL OF RAIL AND RAPID TRANSIT, 095440972096780 [10.1177/0954409720967802].

Investigations into fatigue failure in e-type fastening clips used in railway tracks

Ali R.
Methodology
;
Sebastiani M.
Conceptualization
;
Bemporad E.
Conceptualization
2020

Abstract

This study describes the investigations of failure in an e-type clip at the inside of rear arch, where the stresses are maximum owing to in-service loading and bending that occurs during forming operations. Visual inspection, stereomicroscopy, optical-microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) have been used as the characterization techniques. The microstructural, morphological changes were compared both in the central area and close to the location of failure in e-clip. During primary heating for forming steel rod into e-clip shape, the oxidation and decarburization occurs which caused the formation and penetration of iron oxide. The average thickness of oxide layer was found to be 20 µm with localized areas, where the oxides penetrated up to depth of 50 µm. During forming and shot peening operations, the iron oxide ingested in material at the inside circumferential region of rear arch, which triggered the initiation and propagation of fatigue phenomenon in service. The SEM-EDS analysis and fractography confirmed the presence of iron oxide and pearlite lamellar tearing at the crack initiation site, respectively. It is suggested to use electric induction heating for forming of steel rod into e-clip shape or increased the silicon content from two to three weight percent, which minimize the thickness of oxide layer. The finishing process by adding air spray or tapping of the rod after heating will further help to remove the scale at the critical region before taking it up for mechanical forming operations.
Ali, R., Shehbaz, T., Felicis, D.D., Sebastiani, M., Bemporad, E. (2020). Investigations into fatigue failure in e-type fastening clips used in railway tracks. PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. PART F, JOURNAL OF RAIL AND RAPID TRANSIT, 095440972096780 [10.1177/0954409720967802].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11590/377036
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