Biological growth represents one of the main threats for the conservation of subterranean cultural heritage. Knowledge of the conditions which favour the various taxonomic groups is important in delineating their control methods. Combining our experience regarding hypogea in Italy and the Republic of Korea, we aim to perform a critical review and comparison of the Biodeterioration Patterns (BPs) found, the materials used, and the conservative treatments applied. For this purpose, we focused on Etruscan tombs (Italy, 7th to 3th century BC) and the ancient tombs of the Baekje Dynasty (Republic of Korea, 6th to 7th centuries AD), most of which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites, collecting original and bibliographic data as well as official documents. Results highlight the rich biodiversity of the bacterial and fungal species. Phototrophs were observed only in niches with sufficient light and the development of roots was also detected. Changes in humidity and temperature, the nature of the soil, nutrient accumulation, and vegetation above the hypogea along with human activities explain the different BPs. The effects of biocide treatments are also discussed, such as the emergence of dangerous fungal species. The shared data also enhance the role of overlaying tumuli and vegetation as well as protective barriers to reduce biological risk.
Caneva, G., Isola, D., Lee, H.J., Chung, Y.J. (2020). Biological risk for hypogea: Shared data from etruscan tombs in italy and ancient tombs of the Baekje Dynasty in Republic of Korea. APPLIED SCIENCES, 10(17), 6104 [10.3390/app10176104].