Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex, histopathologically hallmarked by amyloid β (Aβ) extracellular plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, constituted by hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Correlation between these pathologic features and dementia has been challenged by the emergence of "nondemented with Alzheimer's neuropathology" (NDAN) individuals, cognitively intact despite displaying pathologic features of AD. The existence of these subjects suggests that some unknown mechanisms are triggered to resist Aβ-mediated detrimental events. Aβ accumulation affects mitochondrial redox balance, increasing oxidative stress status, which in turn is proposed as a primary culprit in AD pathogenesis. To clarify the relationship linking Aβ, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment, we performed a comparative study on AD, NDAN, and aged-matched human postmortem frontal cortices of either sex. We quantitatively analyzed immunofluorescence distribution of oxidative damage markers, and of SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2), PGC1α [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ-coactivator 1α], PPARα, and catalase as key factors in antioxidant response, as well as the expression of miRNA-485, as a PGC1α upstream regulator. Our results confirm dramatic redox imbalance, associated with impaired antioxidant defenses in AD brain. By contrast, NDAN individuals display low oxidative damage, which is associated with high levels of scavenging systems, possibly resulting from a lack of PGC1α miRNA-485-related inhibition. Comparative analyses in neurons and astrocytes further highlighted cell-specific mechanisms to counteract redox imbalance. Overall, our data emphasize the importance of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of antioxidant response in AD. This suggests that an efficient PGC1α-dependent "safety mechanism" may prevent Aβ-mediated oxidative stress, supporting neuroprotective therapies aimed at ameliorating defects in antioxidant response pathways in AD patients.

Fracassi, A., Marcatti, M., Zolochevska, O., Tabor, N., Woltjer, R., Moreno, S., et al. (2021). Oxidative Damage and Antioxidant Response in Frontal Cortex of Demented and Nondemented Individuals with Alzheimer's Neuropathology. THE JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, 41(3), 538-554 [10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0295-20.2020].

Oxidative Damage and Antioxidant Response in Frontal Cortex of Demented and Nondemented Individuals with Alzheimer's Neuropathology

Fracassi A.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Moreno S.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
2021

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex, histopathologically hallmarked by amyloid β (Aβ) extracellular plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, constituted by hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Correlation between these pathologic features and dementia has been challenged by the emergence of "nondemented with Alzheimer's neuropathology" (NDAN) individuals, cognitively intact despite displaying pathologic features of AD. The existence of these subjects suggests that some unknown mechanisms are triggered to resist Aβ-mediated detrimental events. Aβ accumulation affects mitochondrial redox balance, increasing oxidative stress status, which in turn is proposed as a primary culprit in AD pathogenesis. To clarify the relationship linking Aβ, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment, we performed a comparative study on AD, NDAN, and aged-matched human postmortem frontal cortices of either sex. We quantitatively analyzed immunofluorescence distribution of oxidative damage markers, and of SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2), PGC1α [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ-coactivator 1α], PPARα, and catalase as key factors in antioxidant response, as well as the expression of miRNA-485, as a PGC1α upstream regulator. Our results confirm dramatic redox imbalance, associated with impaired antioxidant defenses in AD brain. By contrast, NDAN individuals display low oxidative damage, which is associated with high levels of scavenging systems, possibly resulting from a lack of PGC1α miRNA-485-related inhibition. Comparative analyses in neurons and astrocytes further highlighted cell-specific mechanisms to counteract redox imbalance. Overall, our data emphasize the importance of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of antioxidant response in AD. This suggests that an efficient PGC1α-dependent "safety mechanism" may prevent Aβ-mediated oxidative stress, supporting neuroprotective therapies aimed at ameliorating defects in antioxidant response pathways in AD patients.
Fracassi, A., Marcatti, M., Zolochevska, O., Tabor, N., Woltjer, R., Moreno, S., et al. (2021). Oxidative Damage and Antioxidant Response in Frontal Cortex of Demented and Nondemented Individuals with Alzheimer's Neuropathology. THE JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, 41(3), 538-554 [10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0295-20.2020].
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
2021 J Neurosci_fracassi.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: Articolo principale
Tipologia: Versione Editoriale (PDF)
Licenza: DRM non definito
Dimensione 6.03 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
6.03 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11590/385753
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 24
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact