Structural studies in active caldera systems are widely used in geothermal exploration to reconstruct volcanological conceptual models. Active calderas are difficult settings to perform such studies mostly because of the highly dynamic environment, dominated by fast accumulation of primary and secondary volcanic deposits, the variable and transient rheology of the shallow volcanic pile, and the continuous feedbacks between faulting, secondary porosity creation, and geothermal fluid circulation, alteration and cementation that tend to obliterate the tectonic deformation structures. In addition, deformation structures can be also caused by near- and far-field stress regimes, which include magmatic intrusions at various depths, the evolving topography and regional tectonics. A lack of consideration of all these factors may severely underpin the reliability of structural studies. By rebutting and providing a detailed discussion of all the points raised by the comment of Norini and Groppelli (2020) to the Urbani et al. (2020) paper, we take the opportunity to specify the scientific rationale of our structural fieldwork and strengthen its relevance for geothermal exploration and exploitation in active caldera geothermal systems in general and, particularly, for the Holocene history of deformation and geothermal circulation in the Los Humeros caldera. At the same time, we identify several major flaws in the approach and results presented in Norini and Groppelli (2020), such as (1) the lack of an appropriate ranking of the deformation structures considering an inventory method for structural analysis; (2) the misinterpretation and misquoting of Urbani et al. (2020) and other relevant scientific literature; and (3) irrelevant and contradictory statements within their comment.

Urbani, S., Giordano, G., Lucci, F., Rossetti, F., Carrasco-Nunez, G. (2021). Reply to Norini and Groppelli's comment on "estimating the depth and evolution of intrusions at resurgent calderas: Los Humeros (Mexico)" by Urbani et al. (2020). SOLID EARTH, 12(5), 1111-1124 [10.5194/se-12-1111-2021].

Reply to Norini and Groppelli's comment on "estimating the depth and evolution of intrusions at resurgent calderas: Los Humeros (Mexico)" by Urbani et al. (2020)

Giordano G.;Lucci F.;Rossetti F.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Structural studies in active caldera systems are widely used in geothermal exploration to reconstruct volcanological conceptual models. Active calderas are difficult settings to perform such studies mostly because of the highly dynamic environment, dominated by fast accumulation of primary and secondary volcanic deposits, the variable and transient rheology of the shallow volcanic pile, and the continuous feedbacks between faulting, secondary porosity creation, and geothermal fluid circulation, alteration and cementation that tend to obliterate the tectonic deformation structures. In addition, deformation structures can be also caused by near- and far-field stress regimes, which include magmatic intrusions at various depths, the evolving topography and regional tectonics. A lack of consideration of all these factors may severely underpin the reliability of structural studies. By rebutting and providing a detailed discussion of all the points raised by the comment of Norini and Groppelli (2020) to the Urbani et al. (2020) paper, we take the opportunity to specify the scientific rationale of our structural fieldwork and strengthen its relevance for geothermal exploration and exploitation in active caldera geothermal systems in general and, particularly, for the Holocene history of deformation and geothermal circulation in the Los Humeros caldera. At the same time, we identify several major flaws in the approach and results presented in Norini and Groppelli (2020), such as (1) the lack of an appropriate ranking of the deformation structures considering an inventory method for structural analysis; (2) the misinterpretation and misquoting of Urbani et al. (2020) and other relevant scientific literature; and (3) irrelevant and contradictory statements within their comment.
Urbani, S., Giordano, G., Lucci, F., Rossetti, F., Carrasco-Nunez, G. (2021). Reply to Norini and Groppelli's comment on "estimating the depth and evolution of intrusions at resurgent calderas: Los Humeros (Mexico)" by Urbani et al. (2020). SOLID EARTH, 12(5), 1111-1124 [10.5194/se-12-1111-2021].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11590/389175
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