We present a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) framework for the numerical simulation of the Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process in 3D printing. Such a framework, comprehensive of both numerical formulations and solvers, aims at providing a sufficiently exhaustive scenario of the process, where the carrier gas, modeled as an Eulerian incompressible fluid, transports metal powders, tracked as Lagrangian discrete particles, within the 3D printing chamber. On the basis of heat sources coming from the laser beam and the heated substrate, the particle model is developed to interact with the carrier gas also by heat transfer and to evolve in a melted phase according to a growth law of the particle liquid mass fraction. Enhanced numerical solvers, characterized by a modified Newton-Raphson scheme and a parallel algorithm for tracking particles, are employed to obtain both efficiency and accuracy of the numerical strategy. In the perspective of investigating optimal design of the whole LMD process, we propose a sensitivity analysis specifically addressed to assess the influence of inflow rates, laser beams intensity, and nozzle channel geometry. Such a numerical campaign is performed with an in-house C++ code developed with the deal.II open source Finite Element library, and publicly available online.
Murer, M., Formica, G., Milicchio, F., Morganti, S., & Auricchio, F. (2022). A coupled multiphase Lagrangian-Eulerian fluid-dynamics framework for numerical simulation of Laser Metal Deposition process. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY [10.1007/s00170-022-08763-7].