Interleukin (IL)-2 plays an important role in the control of the immune responses, and it is released in a variety of tissues in response to inflammatory stimuli. As monocytes and mature dendritic cells (DCs) express CD25, the high-affinity subunit of IL-2 receptor, we examined the effect of exogenous IL-2 on the in vitro generation and maturation of DCs from monocytes. Human monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) were generated by culturing monocytes with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-4 in the presence or absence of IL-2. The cytokine was added at the beginning and after 5 days of culture. Our findings indicate that IL-2 does induce monocytes to differentiate into DCs with the same morphology and phenotype of that obtained in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 alone, but with some distinctive functional properties. DCs differentiated in the presence of IL-2 secreted significantly more IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-12 p70 in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation and induced allogeneic, naïve T cells to release a significantly higher amount of interferon-γ if compared with DCs obtained by culturing monocytes with GM-CSF and IL-4. These results indicate unrecognized effects of IL-2 on human MDDCs and suggest that an IL-2-rich environment during differentiation and maturation of DCs can modify their T helper cell-inducing properties. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.
Sanarico, N., Ciaramella, A., Sacchi, A., Bernasconi, D., Bossu, P., Mariani, F., et al. (2006). Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells differentiated in the presence of IL-2 produce proinflammatory cytokines and prime Th1 immune response. JOURNAL OF LEUKOCYTE BIOLOGY, 80(3), 555-562 [10.1189/jlb.1105690].