Vγ9Vδ2 T cells display a broad antimicrobial activity by directly killing infected cells and by inducing an effective adaptive immune response. The activation of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells by aminobisphosphonate drugs such as zoledronic acid (ZOL) results in a massive release of cytokines and chemokines that may induce a bystander activation of other immune cells. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of soluble factors released by ZOL-activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells to induce granulocyte activation. We showed that soluble factors released by ZOL-stimulated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells activate granulocytes by inducing their chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and α-defensins release. Proteomic analysis allowed us to identify a number of cytokines and chemokines specifically released by activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Moreover, MCP-2 depletion by neutralizing Ab revealed a critical role of this chemokine in induction of granulocyte α-defensins release. Altogether, these data show a Vγ9Vδ2-mediated activation of granulocytes through a bystander mechanism, and confirm the wide ability of Vγ9Vδ2 T-lymphocytes in orchestrating the immune response. In conclusion, an immune modulating strategy targeting Vγ9Vδ2 T cells may represent a key switch to induce an effective and well-coordinated immune response, and can be proposed as a way to strengthen the immune competence during infectious diseases. Copyright © 2008 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Agrati, C., Cimini, E., Sacchi, A., Bordoni, V., Gioia, C., Casetti, R., et al. (2009). Activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells trigger granulocyte functions via MCP-2 release. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 182(1), 522-529 [10.4049/jimmunol.182.1.522].