The thermodynamics, structures, and applications of thermoresponsive systems, consisting primarily of water solutions of organic salts, are reviewed. The focus is on organic salts of low melting temperatures, belonging to the ionic liquid (IL) family. The thermo-responsiveness is represented by a temperature driven transition between a homogeneous liquid state and a biphasic state, comprising an IL-rich phase and a solvent-rich phase, divided by a relatively sharp interface. Demixing occurs either with decreasing temperatures, developing from an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), or, less often, with increasing temperatures, arising from a lower critical solution temperature (LCST). In the former case, the enthalpy and entropy of mixing are both positive, and enthalpy prevails at low T. In the latter case, the enthalpy and entropy of mixing are both negative, and entropy drives the demixing with increasing T. Experiments and computer simulations highlight the contiguity of these phase separations with the nanoscale inhomogeneity (nanostructuring), displayed by several ILs and IL solutions. Current applications in extraction, separation, and catalysis are briefly reviewed. Moreover, future applications in forward osmosis desalination, low-enthalpy thermal storage, and water harvesting from the atmosphere are discussed in more detail.

Forero-Martinez, N.C., Cortes-Huerto, R., Benedetto, A., & Ballone, P. (2022). Thermoresponsive Ionic Liquid/Water Mixtures: From Nanostructuring to Phase Separation. MOLECULES, 27(5), 1647 [10.3390/molecules27051647].

Thermoresponsive Ionic Liquid/Water Mixtures: From Nanostructuring to Phase Separation

Benedetto A.;
2022

Abstract

The thermodynamics, structures, and applications of thermoresponsive systems, consisting primarily of water solutions of organic salts, are reviewed. The focus is on organic salts of low melting temperatures, belonging to the ionic liquid (IL) family. The thermo-responsiveness is represented by a temperature driven transition between a homogeneous liquid state and a biphasic state, comprising an IL-rich phase and a solvent-rich phase, divided by a relatively sharp interface. Demixing occurs either with decreasing temperatures, developing from an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), or, less often, with increasing temperatures, arising from a lower critical solution temperature (LCST). In the former case, the enthalpy and entropy of mixing are both positive, and enthalpy prevails at low T. In the latter case, the enthalpy and entropy of mixing are both negative, and entropy drives the demixing with increasing T. Experiments and computer simulations highlight the contiguity of these phase separations with the nanoscale inhomogeneity (nanostructuring), displayed by several ILs and IL solutions. Current applications in extraction, separation, and catalysis are briefly reviewed. Moreover, future applications in forward osmosis desalination, low-enthalpy thermal storage, and water harvesting from the atmosphere are discussed in more detail.
Forero-Martinez, N.C., Cortes-Huerto, R., Benedetto, A., & Ballone, P. (2022). Thermoresponsive Ionic Liquid/Water Mixtures: From Nanostructuring to Phase Separation. MOLECULES, 27(5), 1647 [10.3390/molecules27051647].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11590/401806
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