Wall paintings have been a cultural expression of human creativity throughout history. Their degradation or destruction represents a loss to the world’s cultural heritage, and fungi have been identified as a major contributor to their decay. We provide a critical review of fungi isolated from worldwide wall paintings between 1961–2021. One‐hundred three scientific papers were reviewed focusing on fungal diversity, isolation protocols, and spatial distribution of data. The study sites were grouped into five environmental categories on the basis of the expected major microclimatic conditions (temperature, relative humidity, ventilation), and the possible relationship with the species found was investigated. The highest number of records were localized in Europe, with 38 sites on a total of 74, 20 of which were from Italy. A total of 378 fungal entries were obtained, consisting of 1209 records, belonging to 260 different species and 173 genera. The accuracy level in taxa determination was highly variable among different papers analyzed. Data showed a dominance of Ascomycota, mainly of orders Eurotiales and Hypocreales probably due to their wide distribution and easily air dispersed spores and due to the possible pitfalls linked to the isolation methods, favoring rapidly growing taxa. Statistical analyses revealed that fungal communities were not strictly linked to environmental categories with different ventilation, temperature, and humidity. Such findings may be due to the wide geographical area, the wide heterogeneity of the data, and/or the absence of standardized sampling and analyses protocols. They could also be the result of the dominance of some prevailing factors in the various sites that mask the influence one of each other.

Zucconi, L., Canini, F., Isola, D., & Caneva, G. (2022). Fungi Affecting Wall Paintings of Historical Value: A Worldwide Meta-Analysis of Their Detected Diversity. APPLIED SCIENCES, 12(6), 2988 [10.3390/app12062988].

Fungi Affecting Wall Paintings of Historical Value: A Worldwide Meta-Analysis of Their Detected Diversity

Isola, Daniela;Caneva, Giulia
2022

Abstract

Wall paintings have been a cultural expression of human creativity throughout history. Their degradation or destruction represents a loss to the world’s cultural heritage, and fungi have been identified as a major contributor to their decay. We provide a critical review of fungi isolated from worldwide wall paintings between 1961–2021. One‐hundred three scientific papers were reviewed focusing on fungal diversity, isolation protocols, and spatial distribution of data. The study sites were grouped into five environmental categories on the basis of the expected major microclimatic conditions (temperature, relative humidity, ventilation), and the possible relationship with the species found was investigated. The highest number of records were localized in Europe, with 38 sites on a total of 74, 20 of which were from Italy. A total of 378 fungal entries were obtained, consisting of 1209 records, belonging to 260 different species and 173 genera. The accuracy level in taxa determination was highly variable among different papers analyzed. Data showed a dominance of Ascomycota, mainly of orders Eurotiales and Hypocreales probably due to their wide distribution and easily air dispersed spores and due to the possible pitfalls linked to the isolation methods, favoring rapidly growing taxa. Statistical analyses revealed that fungal communities were not strictly linked to environmental categories with different ventilation, temperature, and humidity. Such findings may be due to the wide geographical area, the wide heterogeneity of the data, and/or the absence of standardized sampling and analyses protocols. They could also be the result of the dominance of some prevailing factors in the various sites that mask the influence one of each other.
Zucconi, L., Canini, F., Isola, D., & Caneva, G. (2022). Fungi Affecting Wall Paintings of Historical Value: A Worldwide Meta-Analysis of Their Detected Diversity. APPLIED SCIENCES, 12(6), 2988 [10.3390/app12062988].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11590/404684
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