This paper investigates the aeroacoustic interactions of small hovering rotors, using both experiments and computations. The experiments were conducted in an anechoic chamber with arrays of microphones setup to evaluate the azimuthal and polar directivity. The computational methodology consists of high fidelity detached eddy simulations coupled to the Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings equation, supplemented by a trailing edge broadband noise code. The aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of a single rotor are investigated first. The simulations capture a Reynolds number effect seen in the performance parameters that results in the coefficient of thrust changing with the RPM. The acoustic analysis enables the identification of self-induced noise sources. Next, dual side-by-side rotors are studied in both counter-rotating and co-rotating configurations to quantify the impact of their interactions. Higher harmonics appear due to the interactions and it is verified that the counter-rotating case leads to more noise and a less uniform azimuthal directivity. Difficulties that arise when trying to validate small rotor calculations against experiments are discussed. Comparisons of computational and experimental results yield further insight into the noise mechanisms that are captured by each methodology.

Thai, A.d., De Paola, E., Di Marco, A., Stoica, L.g., Camussi, R., Tron, R., et al. (2021). Experimental and Computational Aeroacoustic Investigation of Small Rotor Interactions in Hover. APPLIED SCIENCES, 11(21), 10016 [10.3390/app112110016].

Experimental and Computational Aeroacoustic Investigation of Small Rotor Interactions in Hover

De Paola, E;Di Marco, A;Stoica, LG;Camussi, R;
2021

Abstract

This paper investigates the aeroacoustic interactions of small hovering rotors, using both experiments and computations. The experiments were conducted in an anechoic chamber with arrays of microphones setup to evaluate the azimuthal and polar directivity. The computational methodology consists of high fidelity detached eddy simulations coupled to the Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings equation, supplemented by a trailing edge broadband noise code. The aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of a single rotor are investigated first. The simulations capture a Reynolds number effect seen in the performance parameters that results in the coefficient of thrust changing with the RPM. The acoustic analysis enables the identification of self-induced noise sources. Next, dual side-by-side rotors are studied in both counter-rotating and co-rotating configurations to quantify the impact of their interactions. Higher harmonics appear due to the interactions and it is verified that the counter-rotating case leads to more noise and a less uniform azimuthal directivity. Difficulties that arise when trying to validate small rotor calculations against experiments are discussed. Comparisons of computational and experimental results yield further insight into the noise mechanisms that are captured by each methodology.
Thai, A.d., De Paola, E., Di Marco, A., Stoica, L.g., Camussi, R., Tron, R., et al. (2021). Experimental and Computational Aeroacoustic Investigation of Small Rotor Interactions in Hover. APPLIED SCIENCES, 11(21), 10016 [10.3390/app112110016].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11590/422167
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