Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with a worldwide prevalence of about 1%, characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, repetitive patterns of behaviors, and can be associated with hyper- or hypo-reactivity of sensory stimulation and cognitive disability. ASD comorbid features include internalizing and externalizing symptoms such as anxiety, depression, hyperactivity, and attention problems. The precise etiology of ASD is still unknown and it is undoubted that the disorder is linked to some extent to both genetic and environmental factors. It is also well-documented and known that one of the most striking and consistent finding in ASD is the higher prevalence in males compared to females, with around 70% of ASD cases described being males. The present review looked into the most significant studies that attempted to investigate differences in ASD males and females thus trying to shade some light on the peculiar characteristics of this prevalence in terms of diagnosis, imaging, major autistic-like behavior and sex-dependent uniqueness. The study also discussed sex differences found in animal models of ASD, to provide a possible explanation of the neurological mechanisms underpinning the different presentation of autistic symptoms in males and females.

Napolitano, A., Schiavi, S., La Rosa, P., Rossi-Espagnet, M.C., Petrillo, S., Bottino, F., et al. (2022). Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Diagnostic, Neurobiological, and Behavioral Features. FRONTIERS IN PSYCHIATRY, 13 [10.3389/fpsyt.2022.889636].

Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Diagnostic, Neurobiological, and Behavioral Features

Schiavi, Sara;Trezza, Viviana;
2022

Abstract

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with a worldwide prevalence of about 1%, characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, repetitive patterns of behaviors, and can be associated with hyper- or hypo-reactivity of sensory stimulation and cognitive disability. ASD comorbid features include internalizing and externalizing symptoms such as anxiety, depression, hyperactivity, and attention problems. The precise etiology of ASD is still unknown and it is undoubted that the disorder is linked to some extent to both genetic and environmental factors. It is also well-documented and known that one of the most striking and consistent finding in ASD is the higher prevalence in males compared to females, with around 70% of ASD cases described being males. The present review looked into the most significant studies that attempted to investigate differences in ASD males and females thus trying to shade some light on the peculiar characteristics of this prevalence in terms of diagnosis, imaging, major autistic-like behavior and sex-dependent uniqueness. The study also discussed sex differences found in animal models of ASD, to provide a possible explanation of the neurological mechanisms underpinning the different presentation of autistic symptoms in males and females.
Napolitano, A., Schiavi, S., La Rosa, P., Rossi-Espagnet, M.C., Petrillo, S., Bottino, F., et al. (2022). Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Diagnostic, Neurobiological, and Behavioral Features. FRONTIERS IN PSYCHIATRY, 13 [10.3389/fpsyt.2022.889636].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11590/422172
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