Owing to the unique physicochemical properties and the low manufacturing costs, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have gained growing interest and their application has expanded considerably in industrial and agricultural sectors. The large-scale production of these nanoparticles inevitably entails their direct or indirect release into the environment, raising some concerns about their hazardous aspects. Callus culture represents an important tool in toxicological studies to evaluate the impact of nanomaterials on plants and their potential environmental risk. In this study, we investigated the chronic phytotoxic effects of different concentrations of novel bifunctionalized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-Cit-L-Cys) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) on callus culture of Populus nigra L., a pioneer tree species in the riparian ecosystem. Our results showed that AgNPs-Cit-L-Cys were more toxic on poplar calli compared to AgNO3, especially at low concentration (2.5 mg/L), leading to a significant reduction in biomass production, accompanied by a decrease in protein content, a significant increase in both lipid peroxidation level, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) enzymatic activities. In addition, these findings suggested that the harmful activity of AgNPs-Cit-L-Cys might be correlated with their physicochemical properties and not solely attributed to the released Ag+ ions and confirmed that AgNPs-Cit-L-Cys phytoxicity is associated to oxidative stress.
Iori, V., Muzzini, V.G., Venditti, I., Casentini, B., Iannelli, M.A. (2023). Phytotoxic impact of bifunctionalized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-Cit-L-Cys) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) on chronically exposed callus cultures of Populus nigra L. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, 30(54), 116175-116185 [10.1007/s11356-023-30690-7].