Background: KRAS is the undisputed champion of oncogenes, and despite its prominent role in oncogenesis as mutated gene, KRAS mutation appears infrequent in gliomas. Nevertheless, gliomas are considered KRAS-driven cancers due to its essential role in mouse malignant gliomagenesis. Glioblastoma is the most lethal primary brain tumor, often associated with disturbed RAS signaling. For newly diagnosed GBM, the current standard therapy is alkylating agent chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy. Cisplatin is one of the most effective anticancer drugs and is used as a first-line treatment for a wide spectrum of solid tumors (including medulloblastoma and neuroblastoma) and many studies are currently focused on new delivery modalities of effective cisplatin in glioblastoma. Its mechanism of action is mainly based on DNA damage, inducing the formation of DNA adducts, triggering a series of signal-transduction pathways, leading to cell-cycle arrest, DNA repair and apoptosis. Methods: Long-term cultures of human glioblastoma, U87MG and U251MG, were either treated with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin, CDDP) and/or MEK-inhibitor PD98059. Cytotoxic responses were assessed by cell viability (MTT), protein expression (Western Blot), cell cycle (PI staining) and apoptosis (TUNEL) assays. Further, gain-of-function experiments were performed with cells over-expressing mutated hypervariable region (HVR) KRASG12V plasmids. Results: Here, we studied platinum-based chemosensitivity of long-term cultures of human glioblastoma from the perspective of KRAS expression, by using CDDP and MEK-inhibitor. Endogenous high KRAS expression was assessed at transcriptional (qPCR) and translational levels (WB) in a panel of primary and long-term glioblastoma cultures. Firstly, we measured immediate cellular adjustment through direct regulation of protein concentration of K-Ras4B in response to cisplatin treatment. We found increased endogenous protein abundance and involvement of the effector pathway RAF/MEK/ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Moreover, as many MEK inhibitors are currently being clinically evaluated for the treatment of high-grade glioma, so we concomitantly tested the effect of the potent and selective non-ATP-competitive MEK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) on cisplatin-induced chemosensitivity in these cells. Cell-cycle phase distribution was examined using flow cytometry showing a significant cell-cycle arrest in both cultures at different percentage, which is modulated by MEK inhibition. Cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity increased sub-G1 percentage and modulates G2/M checkpoint regulators cyclins D1 and A. Moreover, ectopic expression of a constitutively active KRASG12V rescued CDDP-induced apoptosis and different HVR point mutations (particularly Ala 185) reverted this phenotype. Conclusion: These findings warrant further studies of clinical applications of MEK1/2 inhibitors and KRAS as 'actionable target' of cisplatin-based chemotherapy for glioblastoma.

Zuchegna, C., Leone, S., Romano, A., Porcellini, A., Messina, S. (2024). KRAS is a molecular determinant of platinum responsiveness in glioblastoma. BMC CANCER, 24(1), 77 [10.1186/s12885-023-11758-6].

KRAS is a molecular determinant of platinum responsiveness in glioblastoma

Messina S.
2024-01-01

Abstract

Background: KRAS is the undisputed champion of oncogenes, and despite its prominent role in oncogenesis as mutated gene, KRAS mutation appears infrequent in gliomas. Nevertheless, gliomas are considered KRAS-driven cancers due to its essential role in mouse malignant gliomagenesis. Glioblastoma is the most lethal primary brain tumor, often associated with disturbed RAS signaling. For newly diagnosed GBM, the current standard therapy is alkylating agent chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy. Cisplatin is one of the most effective anticancer drugs and is used as a first-line treatment for a wide spectrum of solid tumors (including medulloblastoma and neuroblastoma) and many studies are currently focused on new delivery modalities of effective cisplatin in glioblastoma. Its mechanism of action is mainly based on DNA damage, inducing the formation of DNA adducts, triggering a series of signal-transduction pathways, leading to cell-cycle arrest, DNA repair and apoptosis. Methods: Long-term cultures of human glioblastoma, U87MG and U251MG, were either treated with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin, CDDP) and/or MEK-inhibitor PD98059. Cytotoxic responses were assessed by cell viability (MTT), protein expression (Western Blot), cell cycle (PI staining) and apoptosis (TUNEL) assays. Further, gain-of-function experiments were performed with cells over-expressing mutated hypervariable region (HVR) KRASG12V plasmids. Results: Here, we studied platinum-based chemosensitivity of long-term cultures of human glioblastoma from the perspective of KRAS expression, by using CDDP and MEK-inhibitor. Endogenous high KRAS expression was assessed at transcriptional (qPCR) and translational levels (WB) in a panel of primary and long-term glioblastoma cultures. Firstly, we measured immediate cellular adjustment through direct regulation of protein concentration of K-Ras4B in response to cisplatin treatment. We found increased endogenous protein abundance and involvement of the effector pathway RAF/MEK/ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Moreover, as many MEK inhibitors are currently being clinically evaluated for the treatment of high-grade glioma, so we concomitantly tested the effect of the potent and selective non-ATP-competitive MEK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) on cisplatin-induced chemosensitivity in these cells. Cell-cycle phase distribution was examined using flow cytometry showing a significant cell-cycle arrest in both cultures at different percentage, which is modulated by MEK inhibition. Cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity increased sub-G1 percentage and modulates G2/M checkpoint regulators cyclins D1 and A. Moreover, ectopic expression of a constitutively active KRASG12V rescued CDDP-induced apoptosis and different HVR point mutations (particularly Ala 185) reverted this phenotype. Conclusion: These findings warrant further studies of clinical applications of MEK1/2 inhibitors and KRAS as 'actionable target' of cisplatin-based chemotherapy for glioblastoma.
2024
Zuchegna, C., Leone, S., Romano, A., Porcellini, A., Messina, S. (2024). KRAS is a molecular determinant of platinum responsiveness in glioblastoma. BMC CANCER, 24(1), 77 [10.1186/s12885-023-11758-6].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11590/464112
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