Nickel germanide is deemed an excellent material system for low-resistance contact formation to future Ge device modules integrated into mainstream, Si-based integrated circuit technologies. In this study, we present a multi-technique experimental study on the formation processes of nickel germanides on Ge(001). We demonstrate that room temperature deposition of 1 nm of Ni on Ge(001) is realized in Volmer Weber growth mode. Subsequent thermal annealing results first in the formation of a continuous NixGey wetting layer featuring a well-defined terrace morphology. Upon increasing the annealing temperature to 300 °C, we observed the onset of a de-wetting process, characterized by the appearance of voids on the NixGey terraces. Annealing above 300 °C enhances this dewetting process and the surface evolves gradually towards the formation of well-ordered, rectangular NixGey 3D nanostructures. Annealing up to 500 °C induces an Ostwald ripening phenomenon, with smaller nanoislands disappearing and larger ones increasing their size. Subsequent annealing to higher temperatures drives the Ni germanide diffusion into the bulk and the consequent formation of highly ordered, {111} faceted NiGe nanocrystals featuring an epitaxial relationship with the substrate NiGe (101); (010) || Ge(001); (110).

Grzela, T., Capellini, G., Koczorowski, W., Schubert, M.a., Czajka, R., Curson, N.j., et al. (2015). Growth and evolution of nickel germanide nanostructures on Ge(001). NANOTECHNOLOGY, 26 [10.1088/0957-4484/26/38/385701].

Growth and evolution of nickel germanide nanostructures on Ge(001)

CAPELLINI, GIOVANNI;
2015

Abstract

Nickel germanide is deemed an excellent material system for low-resistance contact formation to future Ge device modules integrated into mainstream, Si-based integrated circuit technologies. In this study, we present a multi-technique experimental study on the formation processes of nickel germanides on Ge(001). We demonstrate that room temperature deposition of 1 nm of Ni on Ge(001) is realized in Volmer Weber growth mode. Subsequent thermal annealing results first in the formation of a continuous NixGey wetting layer featuring a well-defined terrace morphology. Upon increasing the annealing temperature to 300 °C, we observed the onset of a de-wetting process, characterized by the appearance of voids on the NixGey terraces. Annealing above 300 °C enhances this dewetting process and the surface evolves gradually towards the formation of well-ordered, rectangular NixGey 3D nanostructures. Annealing up to 500 °C induces an Ostwald ripening phenomenon, with smaller nanoislands disappearing and larger ones increasing their size. Subsequent annealing to higher temperatures drives the Ni germanide diffusion into the bulk and the consequent formation of highly ordered, {111} faceted NiGe nanocrystals featuring an epitaxial relationship with the substrate NiGe (101); (010) || Ge(001); (110).
Grzela, T., Capellini, G., Koczorowski, W., Schubert, M.a., Czajka, R., Curson, N.j., et al. (2015). Growth and evolution of nickel germanide nanostructures on Ge(001). NANOTECHNOLOGY, 26 [10.1088/0957-4484/26/38/385701].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11590/117200
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