We study the problem of subharmonic bifurcations for analytic systems in the plane with perturbations depending periodically on time, in the case in which we only assume that the subharmonic Melnikov function has at least one zero. If the order of zero is odd, then there is always at least one subharmonic solution, whereas if the order is even, in general, other conditions have to be assumed to guarantee the existence of subharmonic solutions. Even when such solutions exist, in general, they are not analytic in the perturbation parameter. We show that they are analytic in a fractional power of the perturbation parameter. To obtain a fully constructive algorithm which allows us not only to prove existence but also to obtain bounds on the radius of analyticity and to approximate the solutions within any fixed accuracy, we need further assumptions. The method we use to construct the solution--when this is possibl--is based on a combination of the Newton-Puiseux algorithm and the tree formalism. This leads to a graphical representation of the solution in terms of diagrams. Finally, if the subharmonic Melnikov function is identically zero, we show that it is possible to introduce higher order generalizations, for which the same kind of analysis can be carried out.
Corsi, L., Gentile, G. (2008). Melnikov theory to all orders and Puiseux series for subharmonic solutions. JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS, 49, 112701,1-29 [10.1063/1.3009574].