A non linear finite element model for the seismic analysis of infilled frame is proposed. Two no-tension struts to simulate interaction between r.c. frame and infill wall, including windows and door openings, are calibrated on numerical evaluations. Results show that two different reduction factors have to be applied to stiffness and strength in order to consider the effects of openings compared to the full infill panel. The role of light infill walls - even with openings - is proved to be important.
Albanesi, S., Albanesi, T., Carboni, F. (2004). The influence of infill walls in r.c. frame seismic response. In HPSM: High Performance Structures and Materials.