Structure and diversity trends (β-diversity and species richness) across the Fagus sylvatica timberline in the central Apennines were investigated. Twenty-three belt transects were laid out across the upper forest line in the Simbruini Mountains. Number of species, plant cover, and height of different layers were recorded in each quadrat. The moving split-window method was used to detect ecological discontinuities across beech timberlines. We show how β-diversity changes along timberlines and we put forward some hypotheses about the possible dynamics of these transitions. Fourmodels resulted from the analysis of β-diversity trends: two β-diversity peaks indicated a transition where shrubs, mainly Juniperus communis ssp. alpina, (two high peaks) or beech scrub (two small peaks) formed a mantle that could allow forest expansion. One high β-diversity peak referred to an anthropo-zoogenic boundary maintained by disturbance, without the presence of a mantle. A little peak indicated a gradual transition at the upper potential timberline limit where beech forest had lost its typical floristical composition and structural characteristics.
Stanisci, A., Lavieri, D., Acosta, A.T.R., Blasi, C. (2001). Structure and diversity trends at Fagus timberline in central Italy. COMMUNITY ECOLOGY, 1(2), 133-138 [10.1556/ComEc.1.2000.2.2].