This study examines the stationary properties of per capita energy use in the 19 Eurozone member countries by using annual data over 1960-2013 period. We utilize the Clemente et al. (1998) unit root test that determines structural breaks. Empirical results show that most of the country series does not reject the unit root null hypothesis at the 5% significance level, both in the case of additive outlier and of innovative outlier. Therefore, our empirical findings provide significant evidence that energy use is non-stationary in almost all Eurozone countries. For the policymakers, it is necessary to pay attention to energy use series.
Magazzino, C. (2017). Is per capita energy use stationary? Time series evidence for the EMU countries. ENERGY EXPLORATION & EXPLOITATION, 35(1), 24-32 [10.1177/0144598716679926].