Introduction. Reviews evidenced the benefits of both forgiveness and self-forgiveness for psycho-physical health, as opposed to un-forgiveness. However the relationship between self-/other- forgiveness and mindfulness has not yet been explored. The present study examined the relationship between the different facets of mindfulness and both interpersonal and self-forgiveness. We also explored whether the impact of the different mindfulness facets on depression is distinctively mediated by interpersonal and self-forgiveness.Forgiveness implies abandoning of negative feelings (Holter, Magnuson, Knutson, Knutsson-Enright, & Enright, 2008), while un-forgiveness implies a range of negative emotions such as anger, resentment, anxiety and depression (Berry, Worthington, O’Connor, Parrot & Wade 2005). According to a recent review and meta-analysis by Akhtar and Barlow (2016), forgiveness interventions are effective in reducing depression, anger, stress and distress, and in promoting positive affect. Experimental studies show that forgiving a variety of real-life interpersonal offenses can be effective in promoting different dimensions of mental well-being. Resentment has also a direct effect on negative affects (Barcaccia, Milioni, Vecchio, & Pallini, 2015). Far less research has been conducted on self-forgiveness (Fincham, 2005), showing anyway that self-forgiveness as well is correlated to better psycho-physical health (Wilson, Milosevic, Carroll, Hart, & Hibbard, 2008). However the relationship among forgiveness, self-forgiveness and mindfulness has not yet been fully explored. It has been argued that these dimensions might be related to one another (e.g., Sesan 2009), but few published studies have examined the relationship between forgiveness and mindfulness (Oman et al. 2008; Shapiro et al. 2008; Webb et al., 2013). Mindfulness may facilitate an individual’s forgiveness of interpersonal betrayal by enhancing emotional recovery and perspective taking and reducing over-identification with anger (Johns et al., 2015). The present study examined the relationship between the different facets of mindfulness and both interpersonal and self-forgiveness. Particularly, we tried to investigate the following issues: • Is there a relationship between self-forgiveness and interpersonal forgiveness? • How are the different facets of mindfulness related to the two forms of forgiveness (S-F and I-F)? Recent studies show that trait-mindfulness is negatively correlated to depression. Is it possible that the capacity of forgiving oneself and others mediates the impact of the different facets of mindfulness on depression? Being mindful (and the different facets of mindfulness) has an impact on depression because it helps to forgive others? Or does it help to forgive oneself? Method and instruments. 276 participants filled in the FFMQ (Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire), the TFS (Trait Forgivingness Scale), the FSCRS (Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking & Self-Reassuring Scale), and the BDI (Beck Depression Inventory). Correlations, regression and mediation analyses with bootstapping procedure were performed.Recruitment: online survey. Results. Both self-reassuring and the disposition to forgive are positively correlated with all the FFMQ subscales. Self-reassuring and interpersonal forgiveness are positively correlated, showing how these two processes are intertwined. Mediation Analysis. The impact of ACT-WITH-AWARENESS, NON-REACT and NON-JUDGE are mediated both by intepersonal and self-forgiveness. The most important predictor is non-judgment. In particular, the different facets of mindfulness have a stronger impact on self-forgiveness when compared to interpersonal forgiveness. In all the three mindfulness facets considered, self-forgiveness is a stronger mediator than interpersonal forgiveness. CONCLUSIONS. Even though interpersonal forgiveness and self-forgiveness are positively correlated, different features of mindfulness distinctively affect these two types of forgiveness. In particular, only Non-judge predicts both interpersonal and self-forgiveness. However, interestingly, the impact of Non-judge on depressive symptoms is solely mediated by self-forgiveness, and not by interpersonal forgiveness. This seems to highlight the role of self-related processes in explaining the impact of mindfulness on mental health.

The impact of mindfulness facets on interpersonal and self-forgiveness

BARCACCIA, BARBARA;PALLINI, SUSANNA;
2016

Abstract

Introduction. Reviews evidenced the benefits of both forgiveness and self-forgiveness for psycho-physical health, as opposed to un-forgiveness. However the relationship between self-/other- forgiveness and mindfulness has not yet been explored. The present study examined the relationship between the different facets of mindfulness and both interpersonal and self-forgiveness. We also explored whether the impact of the different mindfulness facets on depression is distinctively mediated by interpersonal and self-forgiveness.Forgiveness implies abandoning of negative feelings (Holter, Magnuson, Knutson, Knutsson-Enright, & Enright, 2008), while un-forgiveness implies a range of negative emotions such as anger, resentment, anxiety and depression (Berry, Worthington, O’Connor, Parrot & Wade 2005). According to a recent review and meta-analysis by Akhtar and Barlow (2016), forgiveness interventions are effective in reducing depression, anger, stress and distress, and in promoting positive affect. Experimental studies show that forgiving a variety of real-life interpersonal offenses can be effective in promoting different dimensions of mental well-being. Resentment has also a direct effect on negative affects (Barcaccia, Milioni, Vecchio, & Pallini, 2015). Far less research has been conducted on self-forgiveness (Fincham, 2005), showing anyway that self-forgiveness as well is correlated to better psycho-physical health (Wilson, Milosevic, Carroll, Hart, & Hibbard, 2008). However the relationship among forgiveness, self-forgiveness and mindfulness has not yet been fully explored. It has been argued that these dimensions might be related to one another (e.g., Sesan 2009), but few published studies have examined the relationship between forgiveness and mindfulness (Oman et al. 2008; Shapiro et al. 2008; Webb et al., 2013). Mindfulness may facilitate an individual’s forgiveness of interpersonal betrayal by enhancing emotional recovery and perspective taking and reducing over-identification with anger (Johns et al., 2015). The present study examined the relationship between the different facets of mindfulness and both interpersonal and self-forgiveness. Particularly, we tried to investigate the following issues: • Is there a relationship between self-forgiveness and interpersonal forgiveness? • How are the different facets of mindfulness related to the two forms of forgiveness (S-F and I-F)? Recent studies show that trait-mindfulness is negatively correlated to depression. Is it possible that the capacity of forgiving oneself and others mediates the impact of the different facets of mindfulness on depression? Being mindful (and the different facets of mindfulness) has an impact on depression because it helps to forgive others? Or does it help to forgive oneself? Method and instruments. 276 participants filled in the FFMQ (Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire), the TFS (Trait Forgivingness Scale), the FSCRS (Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking & Self-Reassuring Scale), and the BDI (Beck Depression Inventory). Correlations, regression and mediation analyses with bootstapping procedure were performed.Recruitment: online survey. Results. Both self-reassuring and the disposition to forgive are positively correlated with all the FFMQ subscales. Self-reassuring and interpersonal forgiveness are positively correlated, showing how these two processes are intertwined. Mediation Analysis. The impact of ACT-WITH-AWARENESS, NON-REACT and NON-JUDGE are mediated both by intepersonal and self-forgiveness. The most important predictor is non-judgment. In particular, the different facets of mindfulness have a stronger impact on self-forgiveness when compared to interpersonal forgiveness. In all the three mindfulness facets considered, self-forgiveness is a stronger mediator than interpersonal forgiveness. CONCLUSIONS. Even though interpersonal forgiveness and self-forgiveness are positively correlated, different features of mindfulness distinctively affect these two types of forgiveness. In particular, only Non-judge predicts both interpersonal and self-forgiveness. However, interestingly, the impact of Non-judge on depressive symptoms is solely mediated by self-forgiveness, and not by interpersonal forgiveness. This seems to highlight the role of self-related processes in explaining the impact of mindfulness on mental health.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11590/309417
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