In the study, based on a representative sample of 26,670 Italian fifth-grade students, the authors examine the academic motivational profiles of immigrant and native students, as well as of boys and girls. To reliably estimate mean differences, the measurement invariance of a short version of the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire was first established across the groups. Boys reported less autonomous motives for studying than girls while first-generation immigrant pupils showed higher levels of intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and external regulation for studying than natives did. Also, second-generation immigrants had higher levels of academic motivation than natives did, although they were less motivated and reported less autonomous reasons for studying than first generations. While confirming the immigrant paradox in a country with a rapidly increasing level of immigrant students, findings show that second-generation immigrants not only report a lower quantity of motivation than first-generations, but also appear to have a different quality of motivation.
Alivernini, F., Manganelli, S., Cavicchiolo, E., Girelli, L., Biasci, V., & Lucidi, F. (2017). Immigrant background and gender differences in primary students' motivations toward studying. JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH(17), 1-9 [10.1080/00220671.2017.1349073].