Increasing awareness for sustainability has led to the proliferation of initiatives in the wine industry. These initiatives mainly aim at managing the environmental aspects of wine production. In this context, the identification of suitable indicators is crucial to evaluate the industry's progress toward sustainability. Firstly, in the present study, the main environmental impacts of wine production are reviewed, with specific reference to LCA studies. On this baseline, the main programs from the New World, Europe and Italy that address sustainability in the wine sector are examined. Results show that each program has its strengths and weaknesses, but there is still a large margin to merge the best of these programs in one unique protocol internationally recognized. Therefore, the authors have compared the set of indicators employed by two specific wine industries initiatives (the Italian VIVA and Californian CSWA) and the indicators implemented by the wine Italian companies certified with the Environmental Management System (EMS), defined by the European Regulation EMAS. A specific evaluation framework has been developed to assess the comprehensiveness of these indicators in terms of their capacity to address the triple bottom line of sustainability. Findings reveal that while VIVA consider environmental, economic and social aspects, CSWA and EMAS focus mainly on environmental impacts of wine production. Additionally, only EMAS has an approach to the evaluation of raw materials efficiency and waste management. The outcome of the study integrates existing literature on sustainable wine production, expanding the scope of previous analysis and introducing an evaluation framework that stakeholders of the industry may apply to introduce new indicators sets to assess sustainability performances of wine producers.
Merli, R., Preziosi, M., Acampora, A. (2018). Sustainability experiences in the wine sector: toward the development of an international indicators system. JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, 172, 3791-3805 [10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.06.129].