Given a planar digraph G and a positive even integer k, an embedding of G in the plane is k-modal, if every vertex of G is incident to at most k pairs of consecutive edges with opposite orientations, i.e., the incoming and the outgoing edges at each vertex are grouped by the embedding into at most k sets of consecutive edges with the same orientation. In this paper, we study the k-Modality problem, which asks for the existence of a k-modal embedding of a planar digraph. This combinatorial problem is at the very core of a variety of constrained embedding questions for planar digraphs and flat clustered networks. First, since the 2-Modality problem can be easily solved in linear time, we consider the general k-Modality problem for any value of k > 2 and show that the problem is NP-complete for planar digraphs of maximum degree ∆ ≥ k+3. We relate its computational complexity to that of two notions of planarity for flat clustered networks: Planar Intersection-Link and Planar NodeTrix representations. This allows us to answer in the strongest possible way an open question by Di Giacomo et al. [GD17], concerning the complexity of constructing planar NodeTrix representations of flat clustered networks with small clusters, and to address a research question by Angelini et al. [JGAA17], concerning intersection-link representations based on geometric objects that determine complex arrangements. On the positive side, we provide a simple FPT algorithm for partial 2-trees of arbitrary degree, whose running time is exponential in k and linear in the input size. Second, motivated by the recently-introduced planar L-drawings of planar digraphs [GD17], which require the computation of a 4-modal embedding, we focus our attention on k = 4. On the algorithmic side, we show a complexity dichotomy for the 4-Modality problem with respect to ∆, by providing a linear-time algorithm for planar digraphs with ∆ ≤ 6. This algorithmic result is based on decomposing the input digraph into its blocks via BC-trees and each of these blocks into its triconnected components via SPQR-trees. In particular, we are able to show that the constraints imposed on the embedding by the rigid triconnected components can be tackled by means of a small set of reduction rules and discover that the algorithmic core of the problem lies in special instances of NAESAT, which we prove to be always NAE-satisfiable – a result of independent interest that improves on Porschen et al. [SAT03]. Finally, on the combinatorial side, we consider outerplanar digraphs and show that any such a digraph always admits a k-modal embedding with k = 4 and that this value of k is best possible for the digraphs in this family.

Besa José Besa, V., DA LOZZO, G., Goodrich T., M. (2019). Computing k-modal embeddings of planar digraphs. In Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs. Schloss Dagstuhl- Leibniz-Zentrum fur Informatik GmbH, Dagstuhl Publishing [10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.19].

Computing k-modal embeddings of planar digraphs

Da Lozzo Giordano;
2019-01-01

Abstract

Given a planar digraph G and a positive even integer k, an embedding of G in the plane is k-modal, if every vertex of G is incident to at most k pairs of consecutive edges with opposite orientations, i.e., the incoming and the outgoing edges at each vertex are grouped by the embedding into at most k sets of consecutive edges with the same orientation. In this paper, we study the k-Modality problem, which asks for the existence of a k-modal embedding of a planar digraph. This combinatorial problem is at the very core of a variety of constrained embedding questions for planar digraphs and flat clustered networks. First, since the 2-Modality problem can be easily solved in linear time, we consider the general k-Modality problem for any value of k > 2 and show that the problem is NP-complete for planar digraphs of maximum degree ∆ ≥ k+3. We relate its computational complexity to that of two notions of planarity for flat clustered networks: Planar Intersection-Link and Planar NodeTrix representations. This allows us to answer in the strongest possible way an open question by Di Giacomo et al. [GD17], concerning the complexity of constructing planar NodeTrix representations of flat clustered networks with small clusters, and to address a research question by Angelini et al. [JGAA17], concerning intersection-link representations based on geometric objects that determine complex arrangements. On the positive side, we provide a simple FPT algorithm for partial 2-trees of arbitrary degree, whose running time is exponential in k and linear in the input size. Second, motivated by the recently-introduced planar L-drawings of planar digraphs [GD17], which require the computation of a 4-modal embedding, we focus our attention on k = 4. On the algorithmic side, we show a complexity dichotomy for the 4-Modality problem with respect to ∆, by providing a linear-time algorithm for planar digraphs with ∆ ≤ 6. This algorithmic result is based on decomposing the input digraph into its blocks via BC-trees and each of these blocks into its triconnected components via SPQR-trees. In particular, we are able to show that the constraints imposed on the embedding by the rigid triconnected components can be tackled by means of a small set of reduction rules and discover that the algorithmic core of the problem lies in special instances of NAESAT, which we prove to be always NAE-satisfiable – a result of independent interest that improves on Porschen et al. [SAT03]. Finally, on the combinatorial side, we consider outerplanar digraphs and show that any such a digraph always admits a k-modal embedding with k = 4 and that this value of k is best possible for the digraphs in this family.
Besa José Besa, V., DA LOZZO, G., Goodrich T., M. (2019). Computing k-modal embeddings of planar digraphs. In Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs. Schloss Dagstuhl- Leibniz-Zentrum fur Informatik GmbH, Dagstuhl Publishing [10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.19].
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11590/360560
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 6
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
social impact