Identifying species involved in biodeterioration processes is helpful, however further effort is needed to assess their ecological requirements and actual activity. Black fungi (BF) represent one of the most underestimated threats to stone cultural heritage in the Mediterranean basin; they are difficult to kill or remove due to their ability to grow inside the rock and cope with several stresses. Despite this, little is known about BF and factors favoring their growth on stone surfaces. Eighteen BF species were here investigated for temperature and salt tolerance, and metabolic traits by plate assays. The relation between some highly damaged monuments and their BF settlers was assessed using X-ray diffraction analysis, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and SEM. The sensitiveness to four commonly used traditional biocides was also tested. All strains were able to grow within the range of 5–25 ◦C and in the presence of 3.5% NaCl. Instrumental analyses were fundamental in discovering the relation between halophilic strains and weathered marble sculptures. The acid, cellulase, esterase, and protease production recorded proved BF’s potential to produce a chemical action on carbonate stones and likely affect other materials/historical artefacts. Besides, the use of carboxymethylcellulose and Tween 20 should be evaluated in restoration practice to prevent tertiary bioreceptivity. Agar diffusion tests helped identify the most resistant species to biocides, opening the perspective of its use as reference organisms in material testing procedures.

Isola, D., Bartoli, F., Meloni, P., Caneva, G., & Zucconi, L. (2022). Black Fungi and Stone Heritage Conservation: Ecological and Metabolic Assays for Evaluating Colonization Potential and Responses to Traditional Biocides. APPLIED SCIENCES, 12(4), 2038 [10.3390/app12042038].

Black Fungi and Stone Heritage Conservation: Ecological and Metabolic Assays for Evaluating Colonization Potential and Responses to Traditional Biocides

Isola, Daniela
;
Bartoli, Flavia;Caneva, Giulia;
2022

Abstract

Identifying species involved in biodeterioration processes is helpful, however further effort is needed to assess their ecological requirements and actual activity. Black fungi (BF) represent one of the most underestimated threats to stone cultural heritage in the Mediterranean basin; they are difficult to kill or remove due to their ability to grow inside the rock and cope with several stresses. Despite this, little is known about BF and factors favoring their growth on stone surfaces. Eighteen BF species were here investigated for temperature and salt tolerance, and metabolic traits by plate assays. The relation between some highly damaged monuments and their BF settlers was assessed using X-ray diffraction analysis, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and SEM. The sensitiveness to four commonly used traditional biocides was also tested. All strains were able to grow within the range of 5–25 ◦C and in the presence of 3.5% NaCl. Instrumental analyses were fundamental in discovering the relation between halophilic strains and weathered marble sculptures. The acid, cellulase, esterase, and protease production recorded proved BF’s potential to produce a chemical action on carbonate stones and likely affect other materials/historical artefacts. Besides, the use of carboxymethylcellulose and Tween 20 should be evaluated in restoration practice to prevent tertiary bioreceptivity. Agar diffusion tests helped identify the most resistant species to biocides, opening the perspective of its use as reference organisms in material testing procedures.
Isola, D., Bartoli, F., Meloni, P., Caneva, G., & Zucconi, L. (2022). Black Fungi and Stone Heritage Conservation: Ecological and Metabolic Assays for Evaluating Colonization Potential and Responses to Traditional Biocides. APPLIED SCIENCES, 12(4), 2038 [10.3390/app12042038].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11590/404421
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