Nowadays, the study and digitization of historical, architectural, and archaeological heritage are extremely important, covering the creation of digital twins—virtual replicas of real spaces and environments. Such reconstructions can be achieved using technologies with passive or active light sensors: laser scanners as light emitters, or photogrammetry through the creation of photographic images. As for the latter case, a distinction must be made between terrestrial and aerial shots, increasingly facilitated by the spread of UAV systems. Point clouds are aligned using georeferenced points measured with a total station. To create a faithful virtual model of the subjects, dense point clouds from a laser scanner are used to generate meshes, which are textured in high resolution from aerial and terrestrial photographs. All techniques can be integrated with each other, as demonstrated through the experiences of two case studies, each serving different purposes. The first is a detailed survey conducted for CAD representation of certain areas of Rocca Farnese in Capodimonte. The second is an instrumental survey for the creation of a realistic digital twin, aimed at providing an immersive VR experience of the archaeological area of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme in Rome.
Calisi, D., Botta, S., Cannata, A. (2023). Integrated Surveying, from Laser Scanning to UAV Systems, for Detailed Documentation of Architectural and Archeological Heritage. DRONES, 7(9), 568 [10.3390/drones7090568].